5 Things You May Have Never Known About The Civil War

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

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5 things you never knew about the Civil War

A study of the history of the United States is incomplete without reference to the Civil War. The Civil War (1861–1865) set American against American. It has been the cause of the greatest number of documented episodes in the history of the United States.

Civil War trivia asserts that the conflict between the United States and 11 Southern States was the deadliest war on American soil. It claimed about 620,000 soldiers’ lives and about 2 percent of the total population of the time. Civil War history, historians, and aficionados have written many books, articles and reenacted battle sagas.

What caused the Civil War?

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This is a question many still debate in the public domain, with several schools of thought asserting their views. However, James McPherson, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author, provides a more explicit narrative of what caused the war. According to him, “The Civil War started due to uncompromising differences between the Northern States, mainly the free and slave states over the power of the national government to disallow slavery in the territories that had not yet become states.”

In the 1860 election, Abraham Lincoln ran on a pledge to block the institution of slavery in the territories. In retaliation, a Confederate States of America was created by seven Deep South states that separated from the Union. During the Lincoln Administration, the Confederate secession from the Union was invalidated, and the legality was never fully established. They feared that it would discredit democracy by creating a dangerous example that would lead to the dissolution of the United States into individual countries.

What were the bloodiest battles of the Civil War?

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The Battle of Gettysburg

  • Location: Pennsylvania
  • Casualties figure: 51,112 (U.S. 23,049/C.S. 28,063)
  • Date: July 1-3, 1863

The Battle of Chickamauga

  • Location: North Georgia
  • Casualties figure: 34,624 (U.S. 16,170/C.S. 18,454)
  • Date: September 19-20, 1863

The Battle of Chancellorsville

  • Location: Virginia
  • Casualties figure: 30,099 (U.S. 17,278/C.S. 12,821)
  • Date: May 1-4, 1863

The Battle of Spotsylvania

  • Location: Virginia
  • Casualties figure: 27,399 (U.S. 18,399/C.S. 9,000)
  • Date: May 8-19, 1864

The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)

  • Location: Maryland
  • Casualties figure: 26,134 (U.S. 12,410/C.S. 13,724)
  • Date: September 17, 1862

The Battle of the Wilderness

  • Location: Virginia
  • Casualties figure: 25,416 (U.S. 17,666/C.S. 7,750)
  • Date: May 5-7, 1864

The Battle of Second Manasas

  • Location: Virginia
  • Casualties figure: 25,251 (U.S. 16,054/C.S. 9,197)
  • Date: August 29-30, 1862

What caused casualties of the Union Army during a battle?

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According to Mark Hughes in The New Civil War Handbook, the causes of casualties of the Union Armies during battles are:

  • Musketry – 50.6%
  • Unknown – 42.1%
  • Cannon – 5.7%
  • Pistol/Buckshot – 1.2%
  • Saber – 0.2 %
  • Bayonet – 0.2%

How many soldiers fought and died in the Civil War?

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The total number of soldiers deployed from both armies of the North and South were 2,128,948 and 1,082,119 respectively. By the end of the war, the total number of soldiers that died from both sides was approximately 620,000. However, a recent study put the figure closer to 850,000.

How much pay did the soldiers receive?

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There are discrepancies in the amounts white and black union soldiers received as salaries until 1864, when Congress rectified it. White Union soldiers collected $13 a month, while their black counterparts got $7 a month. The Confederate Army paid their soldiers $11 a month. It was common that they sometimes went for long stretches with no pay.

The United States has since remained united after the Confederates called for a ceasefire in April 1865. Civil War history reports that the total number of people that both armies lost within those four years remains the second highest in the history of the nation.

4 forgotten (but important) ancient civilizations

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

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4 forgotten (but important) ancient civilizations

The history of humankind is incomplete without honoring some of our ancestral elders. Civilizations move forward and evolve when we work together to solve the challenges and problems of the day. The practice of living in groups with mutual respect and reliance on one another triggered the metamorphosis of isolated groups to large communities, to societies, and finally to civilizations.

The world has since witnessed the rise and fall of several great civilizations. Some ancient civilizations stand out more than others in terms of their enduring influence, power, reach, and lasting contributions to human development. Many ancient civilizations are lost to time, decay, and the lack or loss of historical written chronicles. However, four forgotten but important ancient civilizations serve as a testament to the human spirit, inspiration, and the grace of time.

The Mesopotamian civilization

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Historical location: Sumer in southern Mesopotamia and the land between rivers (ancient Greece)

Present-day location: Turkey, Iraq, and Syria

Major highlights: First known civilization in the world

Timeline: 3500 BC–500 BC

Why the Mesopotamian civilization is important

The concept of urbanization first started with this civilization. Mesopotamia remains the source of the largest set of ancient artifacts, knowledge, and writings. It was the first city built with sun-dried bricks. History records three significant contributions by the Mesopotamian civilization: the invention of the wheel, large-scale agriculture, and the present-day number system technology based on 60.

The Indus Valley civilization

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Historical location: The basin of the Indus river

Present-day location: Northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India

Major highlights: One of the most widespread civilizations

Timeline: 3300 BC–1900 BC

Why the Indus Valley civilization is important

Thanks to the Indus Valley, or Harappa, civilization, the present world has many things that we take for granted. Their people’s expertise and development of water management systems, drainage methods, town planning, and harvesting practices remain incomparable. Despite the fact that it was one of the earliest civilizations with a huge land mass, the Harappa civilization arose independently.

The Ancient Egyptian civilization

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Historical location: Nile River banks

Present-day location: Egypt

Major highlights: Construction of pyramids

Timeline: 3150 BC–30 BC

Why the Ancient Egyptian civilization is important

Egyptian civilization is widely known and respected based on their artifacts, construction acumen, inventions, art, pharaohs, and culture. Sometimes called the Kemet or Black Land civilization, the ancient Egyptians looked to the heavens and cultivated stargazing into a practical science. Egyptian astronomers used their knowledge to predict many things, such as when to expect the flooding of the Nile and the correct time to sow seeds and harvest.

Ancient Egyptians were also great mathematicians. They expanded the understanding of mathematics and geometry by building the Pyramids. This serves as an enduring tribute to not only the Egyptian kings and queens but also to their engineering prowess.

The Maya civilization

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Historical location: Around the Yucatan Peninsula

Present-day location: Campeche, Yucatan, Tabasco, Quintana, and Chiapas in Mexico and passing through Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador

Major highlights: Advanced knowledge of astronomy and calendar creation

Timeline: 2600 BC–900 AD

Why the Maya civilization is important

The Maya civilization dominated the Mesoamerican societies of the era. Their distinguished achievements include three accurate calendars. In addition, they are widely respected for their writing system, flourishing trade route, and engraved stone architecture. In order to sustain a viable food supply, the Mayans fostered crop cultivation of beans, vegetables, and maize. There is evidence of their domestication of dogs and turkeys during this time.

We share a modern-day connection and knowledge with those that have come before us. They laid the foundations that we have the privilege to magnify, improve, and create our own legacies from.

What planet was NASA’s Curiosity Rover sent to?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

What planet was NASA’s Curiosity Rover sent to?

Venus

3%

Jupiter

9%

Mars

84%

Mercury

4%
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Launched in November 2011, the Curiosity Rover was sent to Mars to collect data and, hopefully, answer the question “Did Mars ever have the right conditions to support life?” Curiosity answered this question early on, when it discovered chemical and mineral evidence of past habitable environments on the Red Planet. Though other missions have been sent to Mars, Curiosity carries the most advanced scientific instruments of any of them and can travel farther on Mars’ surface due to increased power capacity.
Source: NASA | Date Updated: June 5, 2019
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The farthest-away manmade objects in space

Right now, somewhere in the world, children stand at the edge of a lake counting the hops of stones skidding across the surface of the water. It’s hard to explain the tranquil pleasure of watching the ripples emanate farther and farther till nearly out of sight, but it’s even more of a challenge to fathom the distances to which we’ve launched objects into the dark ocean of space. As of February 2018, the Voyager 1 drifts 13 billion miles away from the surface of the earth, 42 years since its launch. It is one of five man made objects that has ever left our solar system.

Pioneer 10

Credit: NASA.gov

Five years before the launch of the Voyager probes, on March 2, 1972, NASA launched the Pioneer 10 to investigate the surface of Jupiter. Weighing 569 pounds, the Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to cross the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and, eventually, escape our solar system by nature of its velocity. It was also the first spacecraft to launch from the three-stage Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle to achieve its launch speed of 32,400 mph. It took the Pioneer 10 twelve weeks to cross the orbit of Mars. On December 3, 1973, the Pioneer 10 passed by the cloud tops of Jupiter to obtain the first close-up images of the planet.

Following its flyby of Jupiter, Pioneer 10 continued to gather data for NASA of the outer solar system until the end of its mission in March 31, 1977. The last faint signal from Pioneer 10 was received on January 23, 2003, as its radioisotope power source had decayed to the point of being unable to send further signals.

Pioneer 11

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The launch of Pioneer 10 was succeeded just a year later on April 5, 1973. The launch this time was accelerated by an additional 210 ft/sec and aimed to pass Jupiter at a point closer to its surface. The closer proximity to Jupiter caused the spacecraft to accelerate by gravitational pull to the muzzle velocity of a rifle (110,000 mph), allowing it to obtain the velocity and direction necessary to approach Saturn.

On September 1, 1979, Pioneer 11 flew to within 13,000 miles of Saturn to obtain the first close-up images of the planet and discover two previously-unobserved moons. By September of 1995, the spacecraft could no longer make observations and by November, the last communication with the spacecraft was made.

Voyager 1 & 2

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The Voyager spacecrafts were initially tasked with observing the properties and magnetospheres of our neighboring planets using their onboard instrumentation. Target planets included Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn’s moon Titan. Data from the Pioneer 10 mission was used to create more robust spacecraft to tolerate the intense radiation around Jupiter. Voyager 1 started its observation of Saturn, the final phase of its initial mission, on August 22, 1980, whereas the Voyager 2 was sent on a longer trajectory to observe Uranus and Neptune, reaching Neptune on August 25, 1989.

In addition to their planetary observations, both Voyager spacecrafts were also tasked with interstellar missions. They were designed to continue scientific observations and signal transmission after escaping the heliosphere and exiting our solar system. They are both still active, with a projected lifetime of about five more years.

New Horizons

Credit: NASA.gov

In 2006, NASA launched the New Horizons spacecraft with a primary mission of observing the dwarf planet Pluto. New Horizons was launched as the fastest man-made object ever launched from Earth with a speed of 36,400 mph. New Horizons started its flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015. Three years later, in August of 2018, it confirmed the existence of a hydrogen wall previously observed by the Voyager launch.