4 Things You (Probably) Never Knew About the Leaning Tower of Pisa

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIP TRIVIA)

 

4 Things You Never Knew About the Leaning Tower of Pisa

A historical site turned Instagram photo background, the Leaning Tower of Pisa is a sight to behold, but it is often relegated to being the butt of an age-old joke. Is that person really holding up the tilting tower? Completed in 1372, the Leaning Tower of Pisa has a storied history that’s painted all over its lopsided construction.

While it’s not difficult to determine something went wrong during its build, there are far more fascinating facts about the Italian tower.

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Benito Mussolini Was Ashamed of the Tower

Photo of the leaning tower of Pisa and a small statue
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When Mussolini took over Italy and aimed to strengthen the presence of fascism, he targeted different aspects of the country. As odd as it may seem, among them was the Leaning Tower of Pisa. According to Mussolini, the tower wasn’t the best symbol for Fascist Italy. Ashamed of the historic structure, he ordered that the tilt be reversed.

Under Mussolini’s orders, engineers drilled into the foundation. Approximately 200 tons of concrete was poured into each hole in an attempt to correct the slant. Once the concrete was in place, Mussolini saw a change in the tilt, but not the one he sought. The Leaning Tower of Pisa fell another few inches south, increasing the tilt.

It’s Not the Only Leaning Tower

Photo of a tall, old, stone clocktower
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Though the Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most well-known structure, it’s far from the only tower built on unstable ground. There are 10 leaning towers in Italy, including Campanile of San Nicola, Campanile of San Michele degli Scalzi, and others in Venice, Bologna, Caorle, Burano, and Rome.

Like the Leaning Tower of Pisa, many of them were built on ground that can’t sustain the weight of the structure. The Campanile of San Martino, Santo Stefano, Basilica di San Pietro di Castello, and San Giorgio were constructed on the soft grounds of Venice.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is joined by two additional leaning towers — Campanile of San Michele degli Scalzi and Campanile of San Nicola.

The Lean Direction Has Changed Over Time

Photo of the Leaning Tower of Pisa
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It may seem implausible, but the Leaning Tower of Pisa hasn’t always tilted toward the south. In attempts to completely fix the original slant, engineers have frequently implemented different techniques. Original attempts were thwarted by the center of gravity, and recent plans led to the Leaning Tower of Pisa switching which side it leaned toward.

In 1995, one method involved freezing and use of steel cables. The result was an increased lean. While some attempts have led to worse results, crews have been able to correct the tilt marginally. Ultimately, engineers have been able to return it to the degree of tilt it was at in 1838.

It Took 200 Years to Built

Photo of the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa in front of a beautiful sunset
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On August 14, 1173, construction on the Leaning Tower of Pisa began. What could have been a relatively simple job was exacerbated by the ground of Pisa. The soft soil led to immediate issues as the tower started to lean well before construction was close to being completed. Marshy terrain proved unable to sustain the weight of the tower, and as building continued, the tower started to sport its signature tilt.

When builders realized the structure was tilting, they stopped building. For almost 100 years, the unfinished tower was abandoned. Construction stopped in 1178 and didn’t pick up again until 1272, leaving nearly a century-long gap. The tower was finally finished in 1372.

Will the Tower Ever Fall?

Photo of the Leaning Tower of Pisa
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Considering the degree of the tilt, it’s inevitable that the Leaning Tower of Pisa will collapse without proper intervention. For now, we get to enjoy it in all of its tilted glory, but according to Livescience, experts believe the tower has only another 200 years left, barring accidents with building maintenance or a permanent fix.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is a part of Italy, one of many landmarks that tourists flock to in order to capture the perfect gag photo of themselves “lifting” the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

3 Amazing Facts About Rome You Never Knew

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIP TRIVIA)

 

3 Amazing Facts About Rome You Never Knew

Rome is a city of romance and ancient ruins coexisting in the cosmopolitan chaos of a modern national capital. Vestiges of the Roman Empire’s power and building prowess, the Forum and the Colosseum, are iconic landmarks and tourism magnets. And as the acknowledged world seat of the Catholic Church, Rome’s monuments to religious wealth over the centuries, such as the Vatican Museums and St. Peter’s Basilica, are important religious tourism sites and shrines. With a history dating back more than 3,000 years, and the art and architecture from along the way, Rome is a museum in itself. Within all of that exist hidden and obscure bits of culture and history.

The First and Largest European University is in Rome

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Sapienza University of Rome — often also referred to as Sapienza or the University of Rome — is the city’s, and Europe’s, oldest college, established in 1303 A.D. It is the largest university in Europe, and the second largest higher-education system in the world. Specializing in aerospace engineering and scientific research, among many other disciplines, the university with more than 700 years of history today is also known for its international studies programs. Sapienza serves 112,000 students with a faculty and staff of 4,000 professors and 2,000 officials, technicians, and librarians.

Typical for ancient Roman times, the genesis of Sapienza is dramatic and controversial. It seems an early Roman with powerful ambitions, Benedetto Caetan, convinced Pope Celestino V to abdicate the papacy, then took his spot. Calling himself Pope Boniface VIII, in 1303 he promptly excommunicated King Philip IV of France in the aftermath of a religious-political power struggle. The same year, he opened Stadium Urbis, the University of Rome, outside the walls of the Vatican. Given the tumultuous times, the move didn’t alleviate all tensions, of course, but it did help set a tone for future cooperation between secular and religious scholarship.

Trevi Fountain Coins Fund the Needy

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Nearly $800,000 worth of coins are tossed into Rome’s Trevi Fountain each year. The proceeds are donated to Caritas to help those in need. Located in the Quirinale district of the city, the enormous and intricately carved fountain is made mostly of travertine. It ended up being designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi, and was subsequently completed by Giuseppe Pannini and several others. At roughly 86 meters in height and 160 feet wide, the ancient fountain is the largest Baroque fountain in the city of Rome and, arguably, the most famous public fountain in the world.

Salvi wasn’t the original architect involved with the project. Architect Alessandro Galilei, a relative of famous ancient astronomer Galileo, originally was given the commission for the fountain’s design by Pope Clemens XII in 1730. However, the announcement elicited outrage from citizens, because another top architect in contention — Salvi — was a native Roman, while Galilei was Florentine. The project was given to Salvi in part to quell the uprising.

St. Peter’s is the Biggest Church Ever

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Viewed from afar, the scale of the buildings surrounding St. Peter’s Basilica gives you an idea of its immense size, as the otherwise sizable structures are dwarfed by the gigantic church in their midst. The Italian Renaissance behemoth is one of the pre-eminent Catholic holy shrines in the world. As such, it is visited by thousands of pilgrims and tourists on a monthly basis.

You don’t have to be devout in order to be awed by the basilica’s grandeur. At 610 feet long and 150 feet high, the huge church is actually the second version. The first, which received basilica status due to its site above St. Peter’s tomb, was completed around 350 A.D. It stood for more than 1,000 years, but concerns over deterioration caused Pope Julias II to call for its demolition. Construction of the new basilica, which began in the early 1500s, took 120 years to complete. Its massive dome, some 140 feet in diameter, reaches a height of nearly 450 feet. After taking an elevator or hiking up the stairs, visitors to the dome level enjoy spectacular view of Rome and Vatican City.

6 Oldest Theaters in the World

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIP TRIVIA)

 

6 Oldest Theaters in the World

As ancient civilizations developed, citizens grew an appetite for different forms of entertainment. Along came theater, with its many forms written to please audiences. Today, theater buffs will love learning more about the first constructions where comedies, tragedies and concerts took place. All of them are popular attractions in their own corners of the world. These are the oldest theaters in the world.

The Roman Theater of Orange, France

The Roman Theater of Orange, France

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Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981, the Roman Theater of Orange dates back to the 1st century. It sits near the French city of Avignon, and is so well preserved that people today still attend the Chorégies festival during the summers.

Originating in 1869, Chorégies is the oldest festival in France today. The acoustic wall of the theater, which is completely intact, is the key that allows the opera and lyrical theater performances to take place with an impeccable sound.

The Theater of Mérida, Spain

The Theater of Mérida, Spain

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Built between the years 15-16 B.C.E., the Theater of Mérida was sponsored by Consul Marcus Agrippa. It could seat up to 6,000 spectators, who were divided into their social rank. Its original architecture is considered classical Roman, but later restorations introduced a melange of design and decoration.

Considered one of Spain’s (many) gems, this theater is currently used in an annual winter festival.

The Theater of Taormina, Italy

The Theater of Taormina, Italy

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The Taormina Theater, also known as the Graeco-Roman Theater of Taormina, is located in the eastern part of Sicily. It is constructed in a particularly privileged area, as visitors can see the Etna Volcano and the Mediterranean Sea while walking around the top of the theater.

Built in the 2nd century B.C.E., the theater was constructed by the Greeks and later extended by the Romans. Currently, it hosts the Taormina Arte festival every year.

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The Theater of Epidaurus, Greece

The Theater of Epidaurus, Greece

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This Greek theater is said to have the best acoustics in the world. In fact, tour guides famously have their groups dispersed throughout the theater and show them that no matter where they are standing, they will hear a match drop on the floor on stage.

Located near the town of Ligurio, the Theater of Epidaurus rests in the middle of a pine forest. It was designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century B.C.E. Archaeologists believe that he made use of the natural unevenness of the land to build it.

The Theater at Delphi, Greece

The Theater at Delphi, Greece

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Further up along the hill where we can find the Temple of Apollo, sits the beautiful Delphi Theater. Its position at the top grants spectacular views of an entire valley.

The theater was built in the 4th century B.C.E. with limestone from Mount Parnassus. Archaeologists estimate that its 35 rows held around five thousand spectators who enjoyed plays, poetry readings, musical events and various festivals that were carried out periodically in Delphi.

History also shows us that this theater was remodeled several times. The seats in the lower rows were built during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.

The Theater of Dionysus, Greece

The Theater of Dionysus, Greece

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The Theater of Dionysus was the largest construction of its kind in ancient Greece. It is located in the northern part of the Acropolis of Athens and dedicated to Dionysus, god of the wine and theater. In fact, it was tradition for worshipers to pray to him in a manner that attracted spectators. Later, these rituals became the classic tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes.

Even though this theater was built in the 5th century B.C.E., records show that it carried on being a popular venue for many centuries. In fact, around the year 407, the performance time was extended to about six hours and the entry fees were deemed expensive.

10 Etiquette Rules to Know Before Visiting Europe

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRAVEL TRIVIA)

 

10 Etiquette Rules to Know Before Visiting Europe

As the majority of Americans are the descendants of European immigrants, you’d think there would be more cultural similarities between the two. But thanks to a few centuries of separation, there are certain differences that have cropped up that are always getting American tourists into trouble, as well as ruining our reputation abroad. Bone up on your European etiquette by following these 10 tips.

In General | Don’t Tip Like an American

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Tipping culture in America is out of control. Put simply, we’re entrenching ourselves in a custom that shortchanges (pun intended) everyone. In contrast, most countries in Europe operate without tipping, so while staff are aware that Americans are prone to tipping, they’re neither expecting it nor depending on it. Instead, use tipping the way we say it works here at home, by which we mean throw a bartender or waiter a few extra euro only when the service is truly exceptional.

In General | Don’t Rush Your Meal

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On a related note, since waitstaff isn’t working for tips, they’re not focused on turnover and won’t check in on your meal as often as someone might in America. That creates a certain amount of dissonance between the paces of American and European meals. We don’t mean to insult American waitstaff, but the emphasis on tips also emphasizes turnover, which can rush diners. European staff is more focused on doing a good job than a fast one, so relax and enjoy your meal.

In General | Dress Yourself Up a Bit

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To the untrained eye, it might seem like most Europeans are on their way to some kind of meeting, with most people in pants that aren’t jeans and shirts that aren’t T. If you’re abroad in Europe, it’s best to take a cue from this and pack clothes that fit the setting. Button-downs, nicer pants and more formal footwear are a good idea. In fact, on that last point, Americans take a lot of flak overseas for our proclivity for sneakers. Unless you’re doing a lot of outdoorsy walking or playing a lot of sports, you might be best served leaving the Nikes at home.

Continental Europe | End Your Meal at 5:25

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Apparently there’s an American dining style, which, for all the jokes we hear about Golden Corral and cheeseburgers, we think might just be Europeans making fun of us again. Instead, we think it’s safer to go with the Continental style. When you’ve finished your meal, place your utensils at the 5:25 position on your plate.  Traditionally, the fork’s tines would be facing down, but modern dining etiquette allows them to be left up as well. That will show your server you’ve eaten everything you want to and they can come to clear your place, all without interrupting the flow of your evening.

Portugal & Rome | It’s Not Rude to Refuse Extra Snacks

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It’s not a guarantee that someone’s going to do it to you, but sometimes servers will bring unrequested snacks to the table in restaurants in Rome and Portugal. If that happens in America, in our experience at least, it’s on the house. Not so much overseas. You’ll probably find these on the bill at the end of your meal, which could potentially cause some problems, particularly if you’re traveling on a budget. Don’t feel too bad about refusing these dishes, since you’re going to be paying for them anyway. On the flip side, you could eat them too. But again, don’t feel bad saying no.

France | Put Your Bread Right on the Table

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You might think going out to a French meal means you’re going to have more knives, forks, bowls, glasses and plates than you know what to do with. That might be true for all but the last, as you’ll at least be lacking a bread plate. The French place their bread right on the table next to their plates in all but the fanciest dining experiences. It’s weird at first, but by the end, you’ll probably be wondering why you were scared to do it in the first place.

Great Britain | Don’t Mess With the Tea

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While it might be the Irish who have the British beat on per capita tea consumption, the British are the sticklers for how people should take it. You’ll have it with milk and no sugar and be thankful for it, especially since it was a Brit who made it for you and offered it to you in the first place.

It’s also understandable if you want to ignore this particular piece of advice if you find yourself having tea in the U.K. Just know you could get some looks.

Norway | Don’t Talk to People You Don’t Know … Unless They’re Drunk

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Norwegians are a surprisingly reserved nation. We say surprisingly because their major claim to fame is the Viking penchant for outgoing behavior. But a modern Norwegian has assured us it’s a bad idea to talk to people we don’t know in virtually every conceivable situation. Buses, trains, walking around, in shops, they’re pretty much all off limits for the kind of random amiability Americans are reasonably accustomed to. Though, they did clarify that all bets are off once alcohol’s entered the picture. Evidently the only thing standing between us and being friends with any random person in Norway is a few pints.

Ireland | Buy Your Round

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Essentially, when a small group of friends or family goes out drinking and plans on staying out for some time, it falls to each person to buy everyone else’s drinks, but usually only once. To put a finer point on it, if you go out with five friends, each friend should expect to buy five drinks. If you try to skip one, or genuinely don’t know what’s happening, you’ll find some bad blood with people who are otherwise hard to upset.

Greece | Nodding Means No

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Nodding is such a common behavior for us that it almost feels like a human instinct instead of invented behavior. But the people of Greece basically switch our “yes” and “no” head movements, which we assume has led to many a misunderstanding between American tourists and Greek locals. We commend anyone for trying to adjust to the new head indicators, but it might be better to simply switch to verbal responses while you’re there.

Two Americans arrested in Rome over killing of police officer

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CNN)

 

Two Americans arrested in Rome over killing of police officer

Rome (CNN)Two 19-year-old Americans have been arrested while on vacation in Rome over the murder of an Italian police officer Friday, Italian police told CNN Saturday.

The Carabinieri police force said in a statement that the pair were arrested Friday night for “the crime of aggravated murder and attempted extortion.”
Police named the suspects as Christian Gabriel Natale Hjorth and Elder Finnegan Lee, and said both were from San Francisco, California. Photos of the pair have not been released.
Italian police officer Mario Cerciello Rega was stabbed eight times at 2 a.m. local time on Friday, in the Prati neighborhood of Rome on Via Pietro Cossa, near the hotel where the two young men were staying, police said. Officer Rega was declared dead at 4:30 a.m.
The police statement said surveillance footage and witness testimonies had allowed the Capitoline Investigative Unit to identify the two responsible for the “heinous crime.”
The two Americans were arrested inside their hotel room in Rome.
“They were already ready to leave the country,” police said. “During the search of the hotel room, which was occupied by the two detainees, the murder weapon was found and seized, a knife of considerable size, cleverly hidden behind a ceiling panel, as well as the clothes worn during the crime.
“The two, once at the station, were interrogated by the Carabinieri, under the direction of the magistrates of the Public Prosecutor of Rome, in the face of overwhelming evidence, they confessed to the charge.”
Only one of the men is accused of stabbing the officer, but both admit to taking part in the fracas, police said.
Police also noted that the Americans had stolen a backpack from an Italian citizen shortly before the murder. The suspects subsequently answered the owner’s cellphone, which they had also taken, and told him “they would not return the backpack without 100 euros and 1 gram of cocaine,” police added.
After police were contacted by the victim, officers met the American suspects under the guise of retrieving the backpack.
They subsequently identified themselves as law enforcement officers, upon which one of the suspects took out a knife and stabbed the officer eight times before fleeing the scene, police said.
The police said that the pair “did not hesitate to engage in a scuffle which culminated in the tragic deadly wounding of Mario Rega Cerciello.”
Matteo Salvini, Italy’s far right interior minister, expressed his condolences over the officer’s death. “Mario, a police officer, a hero, a boy with all his life ahead of him, who had been married for just 40 days,” he wrote on Twitter. “How much sadness, how much anger. A prayer, a hug to his loved ones.”
Italian state police (Polizia di Stato, in Italian) also paid tribute to the murdered officer shortly after news of his death emerged, with a number of police cars sounding their sirens outside the Carabinieri headquarters in Rome.
The investigation into the officer’s murder is ongoing.
CNN has contacted the US Embassy, which referred questions to the US State Department. CNN has not yet received a response from the State Department.

American Christians Love The Father Of Habitual Liars And His Puppets

American Christians Love The Father Of Habitual Liars And His Puppets

 

I used to think that the people in the U.S. who call themselves Christians would never ever back a person who is well known to be a constant liar, I have realized that I was wrong. After all when a person is know to lie constantly how could anyone ever trust anything that comes out of their mouth? Even when such a person is telling you things that you want to hear, then you are the one who is a total idiot for listing to them and believing that what they are telling you is the truth. Top that with the knowledge of the fact that this liar is a total idiot who basically knows nothing about the real world or your life experiences. I am totally embarrassed that we have such a person as our President. If Ms. Hillary had won (which she actually did by 3 million votes) we would still have had a habitual liar for our President. About the only differences in the two is that she is actually smart and that it is believed by some that she has her own set of balls, that is compared to Mr. Trump who has never had any.

 

I have studied the Book of Revelation for decades now and there was only one part of it that I was having trouble with and this comes back around to the people who consider themselves to be Christians here in the States. I know that what I am getting ready to write will anger many people, Christians and non-Christians alike but I refuse to lie just to try to sugarcoat the truth. Near the end of days the Devil himself will sit upon the Temple Mount as the King of the world. The Great Whore of Revelation is the Catholic Church who will sit upon the seven continents and the Babylon of Revelation is “the eternal city”, Rome. The Devil’s army will destroy the Catholic Church and God will destroy Rome. The Catholic Church has fornicated with the world now for two centuries, the “Church” is the “Bride of Christ” that He is coming back to get but this ‘Bride’ is highly unholy and will be destroyed. There will be a time where 10 Nations will control most all of the world’s governments and they will give their power to “the Beast”, the Devil. Then the 10 powerful Nations will filter down to three and they will attack Israel and will not leave one stone upon another. You have the Orient which will be controlled by the atheistic China, the middle of the three will be Europe which will be controlled by the atheistic Nation of Russia, then you come to the Americas. Here had been my quandary, what Nation besides the U.S. would be strong enough to gather the other Nations together as one to go and fight against Israel. I had thought that it would be impossible for it to actually be the the U.S. but I have been proven wrong by how our Nations people have fallen in behind the evil Demonic Republican and Democratic political parties.

 

I do know that actual Christians will never fall in line like that but the problem is a financial one for most all people. The time is not far off that currency will be worthless, everything that we can buy, sale, trade or eat will be done through the chip in our hands, forearms. When you can’t work, buy food, gas, transportation or a place to live, most all people will give in, even those who call themselves Christians. For those of you who have never bothered to read or study the Book of Revelation, it says very plainly what Armageddon is. It is when Satan gatherers the Nations together to fight against Christ and His Angels at His return. I had always hoped that the U.S. would never be part of the Devils unholy army but Christians backing and voting for habitual liars has proven that hope to be an empty one. May God have mercy on our ignorant Souls because the Devil sure as Hell, will not. When Christ returns the Devil and His Angels will be cast straightway into Hell as they have already had their judgement day. All that will be left will be the humans who were tricked, fooled into believing in and Worshiping the Beast and the humans will be crushed like grapes in a wine press and their blood will run to the horses reins. Then, everyone of us will have a date at the Judgement Seat of Christ whether we did or did not fall in line with our evil Satanic Leaders.

The Oldest Palaces Still In Use Today

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRAVEL TRIVIA)

 

The Oldest Palaces Still In Use Today

Many ancient civilizations were driven by excess: excesses of power, of wealth, of pride. And when you have all three in spades, it’s easy to understand why so many cultures sought to showcase their strength by building the biggest and most extravagant palaces in the world. Of course, many of these palaces are now gone. But not all of them are — and many of them are still being used, even today.

Citadel of Aleppo

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Location: Aleppo, Syria

One of the oldest structures on this list, the Citadel of Aleppo is a castle in Aleppo, Syria, that has stood for over 5,000 years. This mighty structure features high walls, an entry bridge, and a huge gateway that are all mostly intact, despite being exposed to centuries of war, weather disasters, and natural decay.

From 2002 to 2010, non-profit societies (such as the World Monuments Fund) have tried to preserve the remaining structures of the Citadel, but their activities ground to a halt when the Syrian Civil War erupted in 2011. As of 2017, the site is reopened to public visitors interested in seeing one of the Middle East’s premier historical monuments for themselves.

Topkapi Palace

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Location: Istanbul, Turkey

Today, the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey, is a large, sprawling museum complex overseen by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. But back in 1458, when the building’s construction was ordered by Mehmed the Conqueror, it was envisioned as a grand palace suitable for generations of Ottoman sultans. And given its impressive majesty, it’s clear that it served this function well — for a while, at least.

By the 17th century, sultans had grown weary of the building, preferring the newer, bigger palaces that had since been built. The Topkapi Palace’s importance continued to wane over the years, moving from royal palace, to imperial treasury, to the eventual museum that we know today. But though it lost favor over the years, you can still go in the palace to see an amazing collection of ancient Ottoman relics, manuscripts, and treasures.

Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine

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Location: Rome, Italy

An ancient part of the Roman Forum, the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine was built in 312 CE. The building, though not originally conceived as a palace, served multiple functions, including a council chamber, meeting hall, courthouse, and place of worship.

This was a crucial structure for the Romans of the time, but the Basilica wouldn’t last. It was severely damaged by earthquakes over hundreds of years until little remained of the building’s actual construction. So, though the Basilica isn’t technically still used today, it stands as a timeless landmark of Roman history — so much so that several events of the 1960 Summer Olympic Games were held at its former location.

Burg Meersburg

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Location: Meersburg, Germany

Burg Meersburg, or Meersburg Castle, is the oldest inhabited castle in Germany. Reports estimate that the castle was first built sometime in the 7th century, though there are multiple theories surrounding its initial construction. Like many others on this list, the castle has undergone significant renovations over the years, and much of the original construction is no longer visible.

Nevertheless, Meersburg Castle is a popular tourist attraction in Germany, regularly drawing in thousands of visitors a year. You can visit the castle yourself on a self-guided tour, though naturally, several areas are off-limits.

Palace at Pylos (Nestor’s Palace)

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Location: Pylos, Greece

Nestor’s Palace is considered the best-preserved Mycenaean Greek palace of the Bronze Age, located in the town of Pylos, Greece. This ancient structure was actually featured in Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad, from whence its casual title — Nestor’s Palace — was derived.

Historians aren’t sure when Nestor’s Palace was first built, though excavators report that most of the artifacts discovered inside date back to 1300 BCE. The palace itself was destroyed by a fire just 100 years later, though modern-day archaeologists would eventually rediscover it in 1939.

Due to its historical weight, the area is a huge draw for tourists. You can visit the site for yourself and watch the excavators dig through the rubble, along with checking out the nearby Greek museum.

The Oldest Palaces Still Standing

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Many of the amazing ancient palaces built by our ancestors have been lost to time, but others are still standing. Should you get a chance to see one of these amazing artifacts for yourself, take it! There’s no telling how long these buildings will be around, and getting a chance to see them live will certainly make a trip worthwhile — even if you aren’t a fan of history.

5 things you didn’t know about Cleopatra

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

5 things you didn’t know about Cleopatra

Cleopatra is one of the most famous women in history. But despite her fame, there are many things about her that most people don’t realize. There are also some assumptions about her that have been distorted, either by the Roman propaganda that was perpetuated against her while she was alive or simply by the long lens of history. Here are five things you didn’t know about Cleopatra.

Cleopatra’s intellect was as valuable as her beauty

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One of the most negative portrayals of Cleopatra casts her as a beautiful temptress who seduced great Romans such as Caesar and Mark Antony. In reality, Cleopatra was a very intelligent woman and skilled diplomat. Some sources have reported that she could converse in as many as a dozen languages.

Reports of her beauty may be exaggerated as well. Mark Antony’s biographer from the time, Plutarch, states that her looks were far from her greatest asset, and it was her charming nature and beautiful speaking voice that made her such an appealing woman.

Cleopatra was responsible for the deaths of her siblings

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Ancient Egypt was a land of complex and often deadly family intrigue and politics, which Cleopatra was very much at the center of. History suggests that Cleopatra enlisted Mark Antony to kill her sister Arsinoe IV after it appeared that oppositional forces within Egypt were rallying around Arsinoe IV and not Cleopatra.

After that, Cleopatra was married to her brother Ptolemy XIII, as was customary in Ancient Egypt royalty. However, he forced her out of Egypt after she tried to take the throne for herself. She led a civil war against Ptolemy XIII, in which she was victorious and Ptolemy XIII died. She then remarried her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, who died of a poisoning that has been attributed to Cleopatra. This allowed Cleopatra’s son to take control of the Egyptian throne.

Cleopatra was in Rome when Caesar was killed

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Cleopatra traveled to Rome in 46 BC with Caesar, and the two made no effort to hide their relationship. Cleopatra brought along their young son, Ceasarius, and Caesar had a golden statue of Cleopatra placed in the temple of the goddess of life, Venus.

Cleopatra was not a popular figure in Rome. She insisted on being referred to as a queen, which did not sit well in a city that had rid itself of a monarchy. When Caesar was killed at the hands of the Senate, Cleopatra fled the city.

An asp bite may not have been the thing that killed Cleopatra

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Mark Antony and Cleopatra took their own lives after they were surrounded by Octavian’s forces at Alexandria. Supposedly, Mark Antony stabbed himself and then bled to death while Cleopatra prodded an asp, most likely a cobra, to bite her, and she died from the snake’s venom.

While death by snakebite certainly wasn’t unheard of in Ancient Egypt, even Plutarch admits that despite the popularity of this version of events, no one knows what really happened. Cleopatra could have just as easily poisoned herself using a needle, and the historian Strabo speculated that she may have just applied a fatal ointment to her skin.

Cleopatra may have been less of an Egyptian than is thought

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Cleopatra was born in Egypt, but her family was of Greek descent. Her lineage reached back to Macedonian Greece, and her father was Ptolemy I, a prominent general of Alexander the Great’s army. Ptolemy was given control of Egypt by Alexander when he died in 323 BC, and this began three centuries of Greek-descended Egyptian rulers. Cleopatra was in fact the first of the Ptolemaic dynasty to learn to speak Egyptian.

The story of Cleopatra is a fascinating tale and has been reimagined many times. To learn more about the queen, you can read Shakespeare’s classic play Antony and Cleopatra or watch Elizabeth Taylor’s iconic performance in 1963’s Cleopatra, one of the most expensive films ever made.

10 Cities All Architecture Lovers Need to Visit Before They Die

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRAVEL TRIVIA)

 

Cities All Architecture Lovers Need to Visit Before They Die

From towering skyscrapers to the ancient Colosseum, the world is filled with architectural marvels. And since architecture is best enjoyed in person, here are 10 cities that architecture lovers simply must visit.

Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

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It’s called the “City of Big Shoulders” for a reason. Chicago is home to some of the oldest skyscrapers, such as the Manhattan Building, built in 1891; the Reliance Building, built in 1895; and Chicago Savings Bank Building, completed in 1905. Most of Downtown Chicago was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871, but the iconic Chicago Water Tower, built in 1869, was left standing. Built solely of yellow Lemont limestone, seeing the 182-foot tower firsthand should be on every architecture lovers bucket list.

Rome, Italy

Rome, Italy

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Rome is home to some of the world’s most photographed structures, including the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and Trajan’s Market. Had it not been for the Romans, designs like the arch and the dome would never have come to be. Rome’s classical structures are a must see. That’s a given. But the city’s Baroque style buildings, which were mostly constructed during the 17th century, are also well worth your time. The sheer grandness of structures like St. Peter’s Basilicaand the Trevi Fountain can’t be captured in a photograph. Few things in life will leave you as awestruck as taking a stroll inside St. Peter’s, with its massive dome, and looking up. You may never want to look down again.

Barcelona, Spain

Barcelona, Spain

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Influenced by the legendary 19th century Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi, Barcelona’s architecture, much like the city itself, is imaginative and colorful. One sight that’s a must see is Gaudi’s Casa Batllo. The façade of the building is constructed of broken ceramic tiles, thus creating an eye-popping mosaic that is unlike anything you’ve ever seen. Other structures that are inspired by Gaudi’s vivid imagination include Jean Nouvel’s Tower, which is designed to resemble a geyser of water shooting through the air, and Frank Gehry’s Fish.

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Credit: Rastislav Sedlak SK/Shutterstock

In addition to being home to the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa, the Dubai skyline is filled with twisty-turny steel buildings. If you find yourself wandering in this desert city, be sure to check out the Burj al Arab, which is designed to look like an Arabian dhow ship, as well as the curving Cayan, with its seemingly impossible 90-degree twist. There’s also the famed underwater zoo located in the Dubai Mall, which features 300 different species of aquatic life, including all types of fish, sting rays and sharks.

Shanghai, China

Shanghai, China

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Fueled by government investment, Shanghai has grown rapidly in recent years. It’s almost as if a glossy new structure pops up each month. The architecture in Shanghai is modernistic, and best represented in buildings like the Hongkou Soho office building, with its pleated exterior. Shanghai is also home to the second tallest building in the world, the Shanghai Tower, which features a twisted, glass façade that stretches upward for 2,073 feet.

Paris, France

Paris, France

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The birthplace of Art Deco and Gothic architecture, Paris is a city whose rich architectural history stretches back centuries. Gothic style, which is marked by colorful stained glass windows and flying buttresses, can be seen in a number of Paris cathedrals, including the Sainte-Chapelle, the St-Gervais-et-St-Protais and, most famously, Notre-Dame, which was in the news earlier this year after sustaining serious damage during a 15-hour fire. Paris’s famed Art Deco buildings, with their notable exteriors that feature numerous horizontal lines, began popping up shortly before World War I and were dominant in the ’20s and ’30s. Théâtre des Champs-Élysées and the Grand Rex movie palace are two prominent structures that exhibit this style. This is a small sample of the numerous architectural wonders in the City of Light.

Moscow, Russia

Moscow, Russia

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The Russian capital is home to some of the most recognizable architecture in the world with a style known simply as Russian architecture. Arguably the most renown structure in the Russian style is Moscow’s Saint Basil’s Cathedral. Constructed in the 16th century during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the cathedral is known for its vibrant, onion-shaped domes. Moscow is also home to more recent architectural wonders like the Ostankino Tower, which was completed in 1967 and was for a period of time the tallest building in the world, and a group of Moscow skyscrapers known as the Seven Sisters. The seven buildings, which were built during the reign of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, are wide and blocky, and scattered throughout Moscow. They were constructed in the Stalinist style of Russian architecture, which borrows elements of the Russian baroque.

Athens, Greece

Athens, Greece

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Several ancient monuments from Athens’s classical era are still standing, most notably the Parthenon, with its enormous stone columns. There is also the Theatre of Dionysus, which was the birthplace of Greek tragedy and the first theater ever constructed. And what would a historically rich city like Athens be without its ancient temples? During its heyday, the Temple of Olympian Zeus, which was completed around the 2nd century, had an unthinkable 104 columns, although only a few remain standing today.

Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul, Turkey

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The most populous city in Turkey is known for two distinct styles of architecture: Byzantine and Ottoman. The Hagia Sophia, which was constructed in the 6th century, is a church that is emblematic of the Byzantine style, with its massive dome and elegiac mosaics depicting Christ and other biblical figures. The Ottoman style of architecture also flourished in Istanbul. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries a number of imperial mosques were constructed throughout the city, including Faith Mosque, Yeni Mosque\ and Bayezid Mosque. The mosques all have the key features of the Ottoman style, with extensive use of domes and columns, and are an absolute marvel to experience in person.

New York City, New York, U.S.A.

New York City, New York, U.S.A.

Credit: GagliardiPhotography/Shutterstock

From the Art Deco masterpiece that is the Chrysler Building (1930), to the Gothic Revival design of the Woolworth Building (1913), to the more recent green design of the Conde Nast Building, New York City’s skyscrapers employ a wide range of stylistic elements. The character of the city can also be seen in the architectural designs used in its residential neighborhoods. From the brownstones in Brooklyn to the tenements on the Lower East Side, New York’s five boroughs are an architectural cornucopia whose styles are as diverse as the city itself.

The Most Populous Cities Throughout History

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIP TRIVIA)

 

The Most Populous Cities Throughout History

Over the course of human history, the ranking of the most populous cities has changed many times over. Jericho was the most populous city back in 9000 BCE. Now it is Tokyo, thousands of miles away. Population growth, climate change, and political shifts are largely responsible for moving the world’s biggest urban centers, but there are truly countless reasons as to why populations move and fluctuate.

When evaluating the most populous cities throughout history, archaeologists look at the total estimated global population to determine the cultural hubs of the period. Before the widespread use of recorded history, many cultures relied on oral traditions to help keep their chronicles alive. Because of this, it is challenging to calculate how many people lived in cities before recorded history.

But historians have done their best to determine where populations converged throughout history. These cities were at one point considered to be the biggest in the world.

Jericho, West Bank

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Population in 9000 BCE: 2,000; current population: 14,674

Most academics agree that Jericho is among the world’s oldest continuously inhabited places, as settlements have been uncovered dating back to 9000 BCE. Jericho is considered the oldest and most populous city throughout history. It is located near Mt. Nebo and the Dead Sea in what is now the West Bank. The plentiful natural irrigation from the Jordan River makes it an ideal ancient city for long-term habitation.

Uruk, Iraq

Credit: Marcus Cyron / Wikimedia

Population in 3500 BCE: 4,000; current population: Uninhabited

Uruk was once an agricultural hub that lay the foundation of Mesopotamia. However, Uruk is no longer inhabited. Nestled between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, Uruk was once a thriving trade center that specializes in local crafts, writing, and grain.

Mari, Syria

Credit: Heretiq / Wikimedia

Population in 2400 BCE: 50,000; current population: Uninhabited

Researchers discovered a large population migration from Uruk to Mari, indicating a flourishing trade and livelihood in that region of Mesopotamia. Estimates place the population of Mari, which is located in what is now Syria, at 50,000 people in 2400 BCE. It was the trade capital of the region and had a fully functioning government and recorded history.

Ur, Iraq

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Population in 2100 BCE: 100,000; current population: Uninhabited

Ur was a very rich city in 2100 BCE, with a huge amount of luxury items made from precious metal and semi precious stones. After 500 BCE, Ur was no longer inhabited due to drought and changing river patterns. Today, the Iraqi city of Tell el-Muqayyar is at the site of Ur.

Yinxu, China

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Population in 1300 BCE: 120,000; current population: uninhabited

Eventually, the world’s biggest population centers shifted away from the Middle East. The earliest forms of Chinese writing can be found in the modern day ruins at Yinxu, sometimes written as two words (Yin Xu). At its height, this city was the academic center of the Chinese world.

Carthage, Tunisia

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Population in 300 BCE: 500,000; current population: 20,715

Located in present-day Tunisia, Carthage was an enlightened civilization until drought and famine sped up the decline of this ancient city. It was not until 1985 that the mayors of Carthage and Rome officially ended their 2,000-year-old conflict.

Rome, Italy

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Population in 200 CE: 1,200,000; current population: 2,754,440

What started as a small village a thousand years ago is now a bustling metropolis. In 200 CE, Rome was the most populated city in the world. It is no secret that Rome has been one of the longest occupied settlements and for a good reason. As a center for government, politics, religion, fashion, ancient history, archaeological sites and culture, it is still a top travel destination for millions of people.

Beijing, China

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Population in 1500: 1,000,000; current population: 22,000,000

Still one of the world’s most populous cities, Beijing broke out around 1500, when it relied on grain and monetary taxes from the population to feed and supply the city. However, that was not enough. The population was so large that commerce destroyed all of the forests in the region. This irrevocably changed the ecosystem in the area.

London, England

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Population in 1825: 1,335,000; current population: 13,945,000

During the pinnacle of the British Empire, crime and terror in London ran rampant. The city was considered unsafe. However, this did not stop people from finding their way in the Empire’s capital. Today, it remains a global capital that welcomes millions of visitors every year.

Tokyo, Japan

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Population in 2000: 20,500,000; current population: 36,000,000

After this trip through history, we arrive at the present day. Tokyo is the most populous city in the modern world, home to an astounding 36 million people in its metropolitan area. There was a brief interlude following World War II until Tokyo recovered economically. Prosperity and a strong bond to Japanese tradition, family, and history maintain Tokyo’s high population today.

The draw and allure of cities continue to bring human civilization closer and closer together. Currently, more than half of the world’s population lives in urban centers, and this number is expected to climb. The current practice of census-taking will undoubtedly help future historians.

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