Iraq: Truth, Knowledge, History Of This Ancient War Torn Nation

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE CIA WORLD FACT BOOK)

 

Iraq

Introduction Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A “republic” was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strong men ruled the country until 2003, the last was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait’s liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Hussein regime. Coalition forces remain in Iraq under a UNSC mandate, helping to provide security and to support the freely elected government. The Coalition Provisional Authority, which temporarily administered Iraq after the invasion, transferred full governmental authority on 28 June 2004 to the Iraqi Interim Government, which governed under the Transitional Administrative Law for Iraq (TAL). Under the TAL, elections for a 275-member Transitional National Assembly (TNA) were held in Iraq on 30 January 2005. Following these elections, the Iraqi Transitional Government (ITG) assumed office. The TNA was charged with drafting Iraq’s permanent constitution, which was approved in a 15 October 2005 constitutional referendum. An election under the constitution for a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) was held on 15 December 2005. The CoR approval in the selection of most of the cabinet ministers on 20 May 2006 marked the transition from the ITG to Iraq’s first constitutional government in nearly a half-century.
History Ancient Mesopotamia

The region of Iraq was historically known as Mesopotamia (Greek: “between the rivers”). It was home to the world’s first known civilization, the Sumerian culture, followed by the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian cultures, whose influence extended into neighboring regions as early as 5000 BC. These civilizations produced some of the earliest writing and some of the first sciences, mathematics, laws and philosophies of the world; hence its common epithet, the “Cradle of Civilization”.

In the sixth century BC, Cyrus the Great conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and Mesopotamia was subsumed in the Achaemenid Persian Empire for nearly four centuries. Alexander the Great conquered the region again, putting it under Macedonian rule for nearly two centuries. A Central Asian tribe of ancient Iranian people’s known as the Parthia’s later annexed the region, followed by the Sassanid Persians. The region remained a province of the Persian Empire for nine centuries, until the 7th century.

Islamic Caliphate

Beginning in the seventh century AD, Islam spread to what is now Iraq during the Islamic conquest of Persia, led by the Muslim Arab commander Khalid ibn al-Walid. Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the prophet Mohammed’s cousin and son-in-law Ali moved his capital to Kufa “fi al-Iraq” when he became the fourth caliph. The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century. (However, eventually there was a separate, independent Caliphate of Cordoba.)

The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad in the 8th century as their capital, and it became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries. Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages, peaking at a population of more than a million, and was the center of learning during the Islamic Golden Age. The Mongols destroyed the city during the sack of Baghdad in the 13th century.

Mongol Conquest

In 1257, Hulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire’s forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad. When they arrived at the Islamic capital, Hulagu demanded surrender but the caliph refused. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, Baghdad was decimated. Estimates of the number of dead range from 200,000 to a million.

The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and The Grand Library of Baghdad (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma, lit., House of Wisdom), which contained countless, precious, historical documents. The city would never regain its status as major center of culture and influence.

In 1401, warlord of Turco-Mongol descent Tamerlane (Timur Lenk) invaded Iraq. After the capture of Baghdad, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur).

Ottoman Empire

Later, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535. The Ottomans lost Baghdad to the Iranian Safavids in 1609, and took it back in 1632. From 1747 to 1831, Iraq was ruled, with short intermissions, by the Mamluk officers of Georgian origin who enjoyed local autonomy from the Sublime Porte.[8] In 1831, the direct Ottoman rule was imposed and lasted until World War I, during which the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers.

During World War I the Ottomans were driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45,000 prisoners of war. By the end of 1918 the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, though only 112,000 were combat troops.

During World War I the British and French divided the Middle East in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. The Treaty of Sèvres, which was ratified in the Treaty of Lausanne, led to the advent of the modern Middle East and Republic of Turkey. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Palestine and Transjordan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became parts of what are today Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

British Mandate of Mesopotamia

At the end of World War I, the League of Nations granted the area to the United Kingdom as a mandate. It initially formed two former Ottoman vilayets (regions): Baghdad, and Basra into a single country in August 1921. Five years later, in 1926, the northern vilayet of Mosul was added, forming the territorial boundaries of the modern Iraqi state.

For three out of four centuries of Ottoman rule, Baghdad was the seat of administration for the vilayets of Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra. During the mandate, British colonial administrators ruled the country, and through the use of British armed forces, suppressed Arab and Kurdish rebellions against the occupation. They established the Hashemite king, Faisal, who had been forced out of Syria by the French, as their client ruler. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices.[specify][9]

Hashemite monarchy

Britain granted independence to Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi of Iraq ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal’s death in 1933, while undermined by attempted military coups, until his death in 1939. The United Kingdom invaded Iraq in 1941, for fear that the government of Rashid Ali al-Gaylani might cut oil supplies to Western nations, and because of his strong ideological leanings to Nazi Germany. A military occupation followed the restoration of the Hashemite monarchy, and the occupation ended on October 26, 1947. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri al-Said, the autocratic prime minister, who also ruled from 1930–1932, and ‘Abd al-Ilah, an adviser to the king Faisal II.

Republic of Iraq

The reinstated Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown by a coup d’etat of the Iraqi Army, known as the 14 July Revolution. The coup brought Brigadier General Abdul Karim Qassim to power. He withdrew from the Baghdad Pact and established friendly relations with the Soviet Union, but his government lasted only until 1963, when it was overthrown by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif. Salam Arif died in 1966 and his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, assumed the presidency. In 1968, Rahman Arif was overthrown by the Arab Socialist Bath Party. This movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein ‘Abd al-Majid al Tikriti, who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), then Iraq’s supreme executive body, in July 1979, while killing many of his opponents.

Saddam Hussein

In 1979, Saddam Hussein took power as Iraqi President, after killing and arresting his leadership rivals. Shortly after taking power, the political situation in Iraq’s neighbor Iran changed drastically after the success of the Islamic Revolution of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in a Shi’ite Muslim theocratic state being established. This was a dangerous change in the eyes of the Iraqi government, as Iraq had a Shi’ite majority, but was ruled by Hussein’s Sunni Muslim dominated regime. In 1980, Hussein claimed that Iranian forces were trying to topple his government and declared war on Iran. Saddam Hussein supported the Iranian Islamic socialist organization called the People’s Mujahedin of Iran which opposed the Iranian government. During the Iran-Iraq War Iraqi forces attacked Iranian soldiers and civilians with chemical weapons. Hussein’s regime was notorious for its human rights abuses; for instance, during the Al-Anfal campaign as well as attacks on Kurd civilians inside Iraq, such as the Halabja massacre, as punishment for elements of Kurdish support of Iran. The war ended in stalemate in 1988, largely due to American and Western support for Iraq. This was part of the US policy of “dual containment” of Iraq and Iran.

In 1977, the Iraqi government ordered the construction of Osirak (also spelled Osiraq) at the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, 18 km (11 miles) south-east of Baghdad. It was a 40 MW light-water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR). In 1981, Israeli aircraft bombed the facility, in order to prevent the country from using the reactor for creation of nuclear weapons.

In 1990, faced with economic disaster following the end of the Iran-Iraq War, Saddam Hussein looked to the oil-rich neighbor of Kuwait as a target to invade to use its resources and money to rebuild Iraq’s economy. The Iraqi government claimed that Kuwait was illegally slant drilling its oil pipelines into Iraqi territory which it demanded be stopped, Kuwait rejected the notion that it was slant drilling and Iraq followed this in August 1990 with the invasion of Kuwait. Upon successfully occupying Kuwait, Hussein declared that Kuwait had ceased to exist and it was to be part of Iraq, against heavy objections from many countries and the United Nations.

The UN agreed to pass sanctions against Iraq and demanded its immediate withdrawal from Kuwait. Iraq refused and the UN Security Council in 1991 unanimously voted for military action against Iraq. The United States, which had enormous vested interests in the oil supplies of the Middle East led an international coalition into Kuwait and Iraq. The coalition forces entered the war with more advanced weaponry than that of Iraq, though Iraq’s army was the largest armed force in the Middle East at the time. Despite a large arsenal of military forces, the Iraqi army stood no match to the advanced weaponry of the coalition forces and the air superiority which the U.S. Air Force provided. Iraq responded to the invasion by launching SCUD missile attacks against Israel and Saudi Arabia. Hussein hoped that by attacking Israel, the Israeli military would be drawn into the war, which he believed would rally anti-Israeli sentiment in neighboring Arab countries to support Iraq. However Hussein’s gamble failed as Israel reluctantly accepted U.S. demand for Israel to remain out of the conflict to avoid inflaming tensions. Iraqi armed forces were quickly destroyed and Hussein eventually accepted the inevitable and ordered a withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, but before they were to do so, he ordered them to sabotage Kuwait’s oil wells, which resulted in hundreds of wells being set ablaze causing an economic and ecological disaster in Kuwait.

The aftermath of the war saw the Iraqi military, especially its air force destroyed. In turn for peace, Iraq was forced to accept “no-fly zones”, the dismantlement of all chemical and biological weapons it possessed, and end any attempt to create or purchase nuclear weapons, to be insured by the allowance of UN weapons inspectors to evaluate the dismantlement of such weapons. And finally, Iraq would face sanctions if it disobeyed any of the demands. Shortly after the war ended in 1991, Shia Muslim Iraqis engaged in protests against Hussein’s regime, but Hussein responded with violent repression against Shia Muslims and the protests came to an end. After the war, Iraq on a number of occasions through the 1990s was accused of breaking its obligations including the discovery in 1993, of a plan to assassinate former President George H. W. Bush, in which sanctions were imposed and military action was taken by U.S. forces against Iraq.

Critics estimate that more than 500,000 Iraqi children died as a result of the sanctions.[13] The U.S. and the UK declared no-fly zones over Kurdish northern and Shiite southern Iraq to oversee the Kurd’s and southern Shiites.[specify]

Invasion by American-led Coalition forces

20 March 2003, a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq, with the stated reason that Iraq had failed to abandon its nuclear and chemical weapons development program in violation of United Nations resolution 687. When Iraq invaded Kuwait during the first Gulf War, the United Nations Security Council, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, adopted resolution 678, authorizing U.N. member states to use “all necessary means” to “restore international peace and security in the area.” After Iraq was expelled from Kuwait the United Nations passed a cease-fire resolution 687. The agreement included provisions obligating Iraq to discontinue its nuclear weapons program. The United States asserted that because Iraq was in “material breach” of resolution 687, the armed forces authorization of resolution 678 was revived.

The United States gave further justification for the invasion of Iraq in claims that Iraq had or was developing weapons of mass destruction and the opportunity to remove an oppressive dictator from power and bring democracy to Iraq. In his State of Union Address on 29 January, 2002, the American President George W. Bush declared that Iraq was a member of the “axis of evil”, and that, like North Korea and Iran, Iraq’s attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction gave credence to the claim that the Iraqi government posed a serious threat to America’s national security. He added, “Iraq continues to flaunt its hostilities toward America and to support terror. The Iraqi regime has plotted to develop anthrax, and nerve gas, and nuclear weapons for over a decade… This is a regime that agreed to international inspections—then kicked out inspectors. This is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world… By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes [Iran, Iraq and North Korea] pose a grave and growing danger. They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred.”[14] However, no Iraqi weapons of mass destruction have been found since the invasion.[15]

Post-invasion

Following the invasion, the United States established the Coalition Provisional Authority to govern Iraq.[16] Government authority was transferred to an Iraqi Interim Government in June 2004 and a permanent government was elected in October 2005. More than 140,000 Coalition troops remain in Iraq.

Studies have placed the number of civilians deaths as high as 655,000 (see The Lancet study), although most studies have put the number much lower; the Iraq Body Count project has a figure of less than 10% of The Lancet Study, though IBC organizers acknowledge that their statistics are an under-count as they base their information off of media-confirmed deaths. The website of the Iraq body count states, “Our maximum therefore refers to reported deaths – which can only be a sample of true deaths unless one assumes that every civilian death has been reported. It is likely that many if not most civilian casualties will go unreported by the media.”

After the invasion, al-Qaeda took advantage of the insurgency to entrench itself in the country concurrently with an Arab-Sunni led insurgency and sectarian violence.

On December 30, 2006, Saddam Hussein was hanged.[18] Hussein’s half-brother and former intelligence chief Barzan Hassan and former chief judge of the Revolutionary Court Awad Hamed al-Bandar were likewise executed on January 15, 2007;[19] as was Taha Yassin Ramadan, Saddam’s former deputy and former vice-president (originally sentenced to life in prison but later to death by hanging), on March 20, 2007.[20] Ramadan was the fourth and last man in the al-Dujail trial to die by hanging for crimes against humanity.

At the Anfal genocide trial, Saddam’s cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid (aka Chemical Ali), former defense minister Sultan Hashim Ahmed al-Tay, and former deputy Hussein Rashid Mohammed were sentenced to hang for their role in the Al-Anfal Campaign against the Kurd’s on June 24, 2007[citation needed].

Acts of sectarian violence have led to claims of ethnic cleansing in Iraq, and there have been many attacks on Iraqi minorities such as the Yezidis, Mandeans, Assyrians and others.[21]

In 2007 Foreign Policy Magazine named Iraq as the second most unstable nation in the world after Sudan.[22]

Although violence has declined from the summer of 2007,[23] the U.N. reported of a cholera outbreak in Iraq.[24]

Iraqi diaspora

The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora. There have been many large-scale waves of emigration from Iraq, beginning early in the regime of Saddam Hussein and continuing through to 2007. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis have fled the country in recent years, mostly to Jordan and Syria.[25] Although some expatriates returned to Iraq after the 2003 invasion, the flow had virtually stopped by 2006.[26]

In addition to the 2 million Iraqis who fled to neighboring countries, the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center estimates the number of people currently displaced within the country at 1.9 million.

Roughly 40% of Iraq’s middle class is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return.[28] Refugees are mired in poverty as they are generally barred from working in their host countries.

In recent times the Diaspora seems to be reversing with the increased security of the last few months, and the Iraqi government claims that so far 46,000 refugees have returned to their homes in October of 2007 alone.

Geography Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Map references: Middle East
Area: total: 437,072 sq km
land: 432,162 sq km
water: 4,910 sq km
Area – comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Land boundaries: total: 3,650 km
border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km
Coastline: 58 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note – this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Land use: arable land: 13.12%
permanent crops: 0.61%
other: 86.27% (2005)
Irrigated land: 35,250 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources: 96.4 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 42.7 cu km/yr (3%/5%/92%)
per capita: 1,482 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Environment – current issues: government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area’s wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Environment – international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography – note: strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
People Population: 27,499,638 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.4% (male 5,509,736/female 5,338,722)
15-64 years: 57.6% (male 8,018,841/female 7,812,611)
65 years and over: 3% (male 386,321/female 433,407) (2007 est.)
Median age: total: 20 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 20 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.618% (2007 est.)
Birth rate: 31.44 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate: 5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.032 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.026 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.891 male(s)/female
total population: 1.024 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 47.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.31 years
male: 68.04 years
female: 70.65 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.07 children born/woman (2007 est.)

The History Of The United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Antiquity)

(This article is courtesy of Wikipedia’s web-site)

Antiquity[edit]

It appears that the land of the Emirates has been occupied for many thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago.[22] There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilization in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BCE.[23] In ancient times, Al Hasa (today’s Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman (today’s UAE and Oman). From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Quda’ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar (in the area of today’s Ra’s al-Khaimah) was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire.[24] The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tu’am and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior .[25]

The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built-in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD.[26] It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD.

Similarities Of Ancient Origins Between The Sumerians And The Bible

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF ‘ANCIENT ORIGINS’)

The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts

(Read the article on one page)

Sumer, or the ‘land of civilized kings’, flourished in Mesopotamia, now modern-day Iraq, around 4500 BC. Sumerians created an advanced civilization with its own system of elaborate language and writing, architecture and arts, astronomy and mathematics. Their religious system was a complex one comprised of hundreds of gods. According to the ancient texts, each Sumerian city was guarded by its own god; and while humans and gods used to live together, the humans were servants to the gods.

The Sumerian creation myth can be found on a tablet in Nippur, an ancient Mesopotamian city founded in approximately 5000 BC.

The creation of Earth (Enuma Elish) according to the Sumerian tablets begins like this:

When in the height heaven was not named,
And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,
And the primeval Apsu, who begat them,
And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both
Their waters were mingled together,
And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;
When of the gods none had been called into being,
And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained;
Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven,
Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being…

Sumerian mythology claims that, in the beginning, human-like gods ruled over Earth. When they came to the Earth, there was much work to be done and these gods toiled the soil, digging to make it habitable and mining its minerals.

The texts mention that at some point the gods mutinied against their labour.

When the gods like men
Bore the work and suffered the toll
The toil of the gods was great,
The work was heavy, the distress was much.

Anu, the god of gods, agreed that their labour was too great. His son Enki, or Ea, proposed to create man to bear the labour, and so, with the help of his half-sister Ninki, he did. A god was put to death, and his body and blood was mixed with clay. From that material the first human being was created, in likeness to the gods.

You have slaughtered a god together
With his personality
I have removed your heavy work
I have imposed your toil on man.

In the clay, god and man
Shall be bound,
To a unity brought together;
So that to the end of days
The Flesh and the Soul
Which in a god have ripened –
That soul in a blood-kinship be bound.

This first man was created in Eden, a Sumerian word which means ‘flat terrain’. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Eden is mentioned as the garden of the gods and is located somewhere in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

Sumerian tablet depicting Enki in the creation myth. (world-myth.com)

Initially human beings were unable to reproduce on their own, but were later modified with the help of Enki and Ninki. Thus, Adapa was created as a fully functional and independent human being. This ‘modification’ was done without the approval of Enki’s brother, Enlil, and a conflict between the gods began. Enlil became the adversary of man, and the Sumerian tablet mentions that men served gods and went through much hardship and suffering.

Adapa, with the help of Enki, ascended to Anu where he failed to answer a question about ‘the bread and water of life’. Opinions vary on the similarities between this creation story and the biblical story of Adam and Eve in Eden.

Featured image: Sumerian chaos monster and sun god. (Wikipedia)

Note: Ancient Sumerian translations were taken from William Bramley’s book, The Gods of Eden.

Related Links

Adam and Adapa: Two Anthropological characters

Sumerian creation myth

Enuma Elish – The Epic of Creation

Sumerian Myths of Origins

Sumerian Deities

Related Books

By John Black

If You Have Any Interest In Ancient Law, History, And Culture, Learn Of Hammurabi

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF GOOGLE PLUS AND (WHO, WHY, WHERE AND HOW) WEB-SITE)

Friday, 11 November 2016

Hammurabi’s Code of Law

Hammurabi’s Code of Law is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC. It is one of the oldest and one of the most important deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth king of the Babylonian dynasty, Hammurabi, enacted this code. Partial copies of this code exist on a seven and a half foot stone stele and various clay tablets.
Img Source – http://www.todayifoundout.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Code-of-Hammurabi.jpg
It was a Customary law of code, which means that it was based on rituals, customs, and practices of the society. The code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man. Customary laws was the basis of legal structure. Rulers would usually apply the laws of their predecessors. Rulers would issue edicts which contained these modifications. Hammurabi carried out a thorough compilation of laws, many of which were intended to guide judges in situations which were not provided for in existing law. In order to familiarise the people with these laws Hammurabi had them inscribed and placed in several parts of the empire, many were placed in temples also. The Susa inscription is the most well known of all the copies of Hammurabi’s code.
Susa inscription
Img Source – http://danamotor.ir/Inscription_Elamite_Susa.jpg

The Mesopotamian Society at a glance.

The code confirms the existence of a highly stratified society. The code recognises three main classes: Wardu, Mushkenu and awelu.
Wardu was the term used for slaves. By Hammurabi’s time there was a considerable slave population in Mesopotamia. The ability to produce a surplus on a regular basis had been the first precondition for the emergence of slavery. Slavery becomes possible when society reaches a stage where it can produce surplus. Warfare, however is the second precondition for slavery. Enslavement implied complete dehumanisation of a person. Slaves were treated as things and not as human beings. The first slaves were women. When a group was conquered, the normal practise was to kill the men and enslave the women. It would have required too much armed force to watch over men slaves who possessed military training. It was much later that men were enslaved. The Wardu had distinctive marks on their bodies. This made it difficult for them to run away. They were shaven and branded. In Hammurabi’s code of law, helping a slave lead to death.
The Awelu were the uppermost stratum of society. Awelu were free inhabitants enjoying superior rights. The Awelu included priests, nobles, military leaders, warriors, scribes and big farmers. The ruling elites were drawn from this class.
The Mushkenu did not enjoy certain rights. They could not hold any public office and were usually not allowed to possess weapons. Their right to property was limited. They were tenants rather than landowners. The Mushkenu stood much lower than Aweku in the social hierarchy. Yet they were free, unlike the Wardu. Whereas laws in the code ordinarily apply to the Awelu and Mushkenu in a similar manner, most of the penalties prescribed are much lighter for the Awelu.

Laws

Almost one-forth of the laws in the code pertain to marriage and the regulation of family relationships. Also, the emergence of private property meant that rulers for inheritance had to be property defined. There must have been a large number of disputes over the inheritance of property. The family, rather the clan, now became the main unit for control over property. Property was inherited within the family.

Women’s Status

With the development of agriculture, agrarian communities took to sedentism and established ties of cooperation with one another. These ties were strengthened ties of cooperation with exchange of marriage partners. Women would give birth to children and thereby could be tied down to a new group more easily. Their reproductive function would give them a stake in the group into which they had married, ensuring the loyalty. Men on the other hand would find it easy to break their ties and run away. Women thus became commodities to be exchanged primarily for the purpose of producing children. Once woman had became a ‘thing’ she no longer enjoyed an equal status. Society became a male dominated Society. The Structure of family was patriarchal. The authority of the father could not be questioned. If a son hit his father, the father could punish the son by cutting of his hand.
A Dowry settlement would be made at the time of marriage. When a women Died, her dowry went to her sons.
Divorce was a male prerogative. According to the code one of the acceptable grounds for divorce was that a woman had behaved ‘foolishly wasting her house and belittling her husband’ The most common reason for divorce was the feature to give birth to sons.

Economy

Another category of laws in the code deal with the economy. A farmer who undertook to reclaim wasteland was allowed three years to perform the task. In the first year he paid no tax, half the normal tax in the second year, and the full rate in the third year. The laws make it clear that every holder of land had to maintain the bank of any canal that flowed past the fields, and any neglect which might result in damage to adjacent fields was punishable. Then there are laws which lay down the price that had to be paid for certain services, e.g surgery.

Military

Hammurabi’s code has references to the system of ilkum which was a mechanism for enlisting military service. Ilkumimplied a grant of land which obliged the holder to serve in the army. It is not very clear as to how ilkum operated, but this institution was useful for mobilising military support.

A thought

Mesopotamian laws, including those enshrined in Hammurabi’s code, exerted considerable influence over the legal systems of other societies of West Asia. Many of these laws were later modified and adapted to suit the social conditions of the people of this region. 

Archaeologists Discover A 4000 Year Old Archaeological Find Linking Allah To Lucifer And The “Harlot Religion”

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF ‘SHOEBAT.COM’, I FOUND THIS WEBSITE AT GOOGLE +, UNDER ‘HISTORY’)

Archaeologists Discover A 4000 Year Old Archaeological Find Linking Allah To Lucifer And The “Harlot Religion”
By Walid Shoebat and Theodore Shoebat4000 years old is as close as we can get to connecting how old is “Allah” as deity, his relation to the great rebellion, sex, war … everything.

Amid excavations at four different ancient sites in the Central Anatolian province of Yozgat in the Uşaklı Mound at the Büyük Taşlık village in Turkey there laid a cuneiform tablet unearthed after laying there for 4000 years (2,000 B.C.) The cuneiform tablet in the Sorgun district of Yozgat shows symbols of Ishtar, known as the Hittite goddess of love, war, fertility and sexuality. Ishtar or “the queen of harlots” goddess was found mentioned more clearly in this cuneiform than those on any other unearthed tablets.

Linking Ishtar to other archaeological relics, also written in the same cuneiform is the Epic of Atrahasis cuneiform dating just as far back in ancient history (1700-1800 B.C.), which reveal that this ancient deity known as Ishtar and the snake beast god known as Ishtaran another name for “Allah” who is literally mentioned in the epic by name and was a transvestite (dual male and female nature).

Ishtar Cuneiform

The The Epic of Atrahasis is the Mesopotamian account of the Great Flood, which was a corruption of the biblical account in Genesis where Satan rebelled against Yahweh. The amazing epic translated by archaeologists who did not cover up the name “Allah” at the beginning of the epic where all of the gods are laboring in slavery for the head deity, Enlil, and then one rebellious deity named “Allah” then revolts against Enlil where Enlil crushes the rebellion and then defeats Allah who was also called Tammuz in Sumerian mythology. Yet this defeat of the rebellion caused by this god of war “Allah” is not considered evil, but his loss is lamented over:

Alas the lad, the warrior Ninazu! Alas the lad, my lad, my Damu! Alas the lad, the child Ningishzida! Alas the lad, Allah, owner of the net!…The shepherd, lord Dumuzi, bridegroom of Inanna … [The bitter cry for him! the bitter] cry [for him!] [The bitter] cry for the captive D[umuzi!] The bitter cry [for] the captive Ama-ushumgal-anna! Woe the lad, the child Ningishzida! Woe the lad, Ishtaran of shining visage! Woe the lad, Allah, owner of the net![2]

atrahasis

Epic of Atrahasis

Allah, Allat, Tammuz … these were different names to the same deity, Allah, who in the Epic is referred to as  Ishtaran who according to archeology is “the beast and symbol of Ištaran, as frequently represented on kudurrus, is a snake“. Biblical, from Genesis “the snake” to Revelation “the beast” these are associated to Lucifer and the devil who caused such rebellion by transforming himself into a snake with four legs then lured Eve. On a side note, while some think that a four-legged snake is myth, archaeologists earthing fossil records prove that a snake with four legs is a fact, the snake must have then devolved, not evolved.

Another link to Lucifer in the Bible is Venus and the pagan deity Sin which historically both link to Allah, the ancient deity, which is not only the “moon-god” Sin (Nanna to the Sumerians) but also to the star and crescent (often identified as Venus) with Ishtar (Inanna to the Sumerians). Even the Bible links Venus to Isaiah 14:12 to Helel (Crescent) ben Shahar (morning star) identifying the Lucifer possessing the Antichrist becoming the King of Babylon.

venus-morning-star

The Babylonian name of Venus, at certain times of the year were viewed star of Venus and crescent

Ishtar/Allah was originally a male deity of Venus for the Akkadian Arabs, and after settling into Mesopotamia from Yemen, became Athtar with the Sumerian goddess of Venus Inanna, and would become the Babylonian Ishtar. [3] Ishtar was the Arabian Allat, [4] the female consort of Allah who was so revered by the Mesopotamia’s that they had called her Um-Uruk, or “the mother of the town of Erech,” [5] an infamous city of ancient Iraq.

Since Allat (Ishtar) was the feminine root of Allah, and was worshiped in Mesopotamia, and equal to the Sumerian Inanna, since they were both Venus goddesses, we should be able to find Allah associated with this goddess, based on inscriptions.

In fact, we do, a Sumerian verse which directly identifies “Allah” with the bridegroom of Inanna, Dumuzi or Tammuz who was an ancient deified king who once ruled the city-state of Erech, or Uruk, as the fourth king of its First Dynasty, [6] at around—according to Kramer—the third millennium B.C.,[7] and whose death was ritually lamented by the Sumerians.[8]

In essence, this “Mother of Harlots” which ruled the kings of the earth from ancient times until now is  this transvestite deity Allah whose worship covers the entire region, then, and until now. So when Muslims roam roundabout the black stone it is a throwback to the worship of Ishtar, whom they called Athtar and Allat. St. John of Damascus said that the image of the Black Stone in the Kaaba in Mecca, is really an idol of Aphrodite porne, which is really just a Greek rendition of saying Allat or Ishtar, the harlot goddess.

The cuneiform of Ishtar, the goddess harlot discovered in Turkey and the worship of this Allah relates to the Kaaba in ancient times. In other words, from a biblical perspective, the facade of this harlot religion never changed and simply adopted monotheism. Christians were instructed to beware of a religion that “look like a lamb,” which in other words, seems like the real deal, but is a prostitute religion which “speaks like a dragon”. In other words it utters blasphemies. Even the imagery given in Revelation speaks of this harlot decked in gold, silver, jewels and adorned as a queen. Allah’s residence in Arabia lays an effeminate structure covered with pure silk black dress and is considered by Muslims to be a woman’s dress. The Kaaba’s attire is called “Kiswa/Kuswa” which even the prominent historian Edward Gibbons elaborated on this:

“…the kuswa of the magnificent Kaaba, is what is used for clothing of a [virtuous] covering, on top of it, it is written, the Kaaba’s dressing, meaning ‘we have dressed her dress.” [9]

Whoever dreamt that the “seven towers” of ancient extinct Babel exists today and is literally called “Babel”? Any doubting Thomas needs to visit Mecca and see (be advised if you’r not Muslim and enter Mecca you could get beheaded). Al-Sharq Al-Awasat, the prominent Middle East Newspaper names Mecca’s great project and the choice where it was built is atop the mountain that is literally called “Mount Babel” as it is called today and in history:

“The project Towers Of The House is the first project in Mecca … which carry seven towers … “Towers Of The House” is on the area of Mount Babel in Ajyad. The site overlooks directly on the Haram al-Sharif (Holy House [Ka’ba]).”

“is also the largest tower in the world in terms of area. Contractor Bin Laden Group, Saudi Arabia … Classified as the largest building urban in terms of the total area on the face of the globe, where excess space land for the project 1.4 million square meters and consists of 7 towers”.

burj5

And just as archaeologists ignored the literal reference to Allah in the Epic of Atrahasis no one in the prophecy arena has even raised a single red flag about the significance on how this harlot is described and is Biblically linked to Ishtar and Babylon or how it is destroyed in the end. Isaiah links Iran vs. Saudi Arabia to what we see today in the Iran Nuclear Deal. According to Isaiah, Iran (biblical Elam) must destroy Arabia and John levels similar destruction to what seems to be the harlot’s abode in a distant desert. The house of Allah, while Isaiah 14 talks of Lucifer’s rebellion, in Isaiah 21:9, God finally ends it leveling a prophetic oracle against this harlot, the root cause of this rebellion. “Elam, attack!” says Isaiah (v-2) leveling this prophetic oracle specifically against Arabia (v-13) even referring to Arabia as  “Babylon is fallen is fallen” (v-9) using the same announcement in Revelation 18:1-2 and Revelation 14:8 against the harlot city: “Babylon is fallen, is fallen”:

“‘Babylon has fallen, has fallen!” (Isaiah 21:9)

“The burden against Dumah” (Isaiah 21:11)

“The burden against Arabia” (Isaiah 21:13)

“All the glory of Kedar will fail” (Isaiah 21:16)

And to see the nuclear effect, again, a few chapters before, the destruction of Babylon is described as being absolute and complete “I will sweep it with the broom of destruction” (Isaiah 12:15).

“The broom of destruction” seems like footage of a nuclear explosion all with the fury and the power of the ominous cloud that sweeps up everything in its path. This woman (the Kaaba), as the Muslim myth has it, is Bab-Illah (Bab-El / Babel) the Gate Door to Allah decked with gold and silver with declarations which the Bible considers utterly blasphemous since it denies The Father and The Son.

k1

Ancient history as it seems still continues, and it is still guised as “true religion”.

Related Read:  Mystery BABYLON and the Scarlet WHORE

Saudi Arabia, The Whore Of Babylon, Is Feeling The Heat From Iran As She Reads The Writing On The Wall

THERE ARE SO MANY CHRISTIAN SUFFERING IN PAKISTAN. HELP US RESCUE CHRISTIANS FROM ISLAMIC PERSECUTION. CLICK HERE TO MAKE A DONATION THAT WILL SAVE CHRISTIAN LIVES FROM MUSLIM TERRORISTS 

SOURCES

1 Patricia Turner and Charles Russell Coulter, Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Page 242, Ishtar, Oxford University Press US, 2001.

2 In the Desert by the Early Grass, in Thorkild Jacobsen, The Harps that Once, part i, p. 61, p. 53, p. 55

2 Date from Stephanie Dalley’s introduction to Atrahasis, in her Myths from Mesopotamia, p. 3.

3 See Langdon, The Mythology of all Races, vol. v: Semitic, ch. i, pp. 4-5, 14, 19

4 Langdon, The Mythology of all Races, vol. v: Semitic, ch. i, p. 24

5 See F. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, ch. ix, p. 116

6 Langdon, The Mythology of all Races, vol. v: Semitic, ch. xi, p. 341; Gadd, Ideas of Divine Rule in the Ancient East, lect. i, p. 17, n. 2; Kramer, The Sumerians, ch. ii, p. 45; ch. iv, p. 140

7 Kramer, The Sumerians, ch. iv, p. 140

8 See Kramer, The Sumerians, ch. iv, p. 156

9 Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of The Roman Empire, Volume 6, Chap. 1, Page 211., Little, Brown, and Company, 1855.

The History Of The United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Antiquity)

(This article is courtesy of Wikipedia’s web-site)

Antiquity[edit]

It appears that the land of the Emirates has been occupied for many thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago.[22] There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilization in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3000 BCE.[23] In ancient times, Al Hasa (today’s Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman (today’s UAE and Oman). From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Quda’ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar (in the area of today’s Ra’s al-Khaimah) was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire.[24] The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tu’am and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior .[25]

The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built-in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD.[26] It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD.