Navassa Island: The History Of This Uninhabited ‘Bird Shit’ Island

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE CIA WORLD FACT BOOK)

 

Navassa Island

Introduction This uninhabited island was claimed by the US in 1857 for its guano. Mining took place between 1865 and 1898. The lighthouse, built in 1917, was shut down in 1996 and administration of Navassa Island transferred from the Coast Guard to the Department of the Interior. A 1998 scientific expedition to the island described it as a unique preserve of Caribbean biodiversity; the following year it became a National Wildlife Refuge and annual scientific expeditions have continued.
History In 1504, Christopher Columbus, stranded on Jamaica, sent some crew members by canoe to Hispaniola for help. They ran into the island on the way, but it had no water. They called it Navaza (from “nava-” meaning plain, or field), and it was avoided by mariners for the next 350 years.

Despite an earlier claim by Haiti, Navassa Island was claimed for the United States in 1857 by Peter Duncan, an American sea captain, the third island to be claimed under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, because of the island’s guano deposits. These deposits were actively mined from 1865 to 1898. Haiti protested the annexation, but the U.S. rejected the Haitian claim and since October 1857 has claimed the island as an unincorporated territory (according to the Insular Cases.)

Guano phosphate was a superior organic fertilizer that became a mainstay of American agriculture in the mid-19th century. Duncan transferred his discoverer’s rights to his employer, an American guano trader in Jamaica, who sold them to the just-formed Navassa Phosphate Company of Baltimore. After an interruption for the U.S. Civil War, the Company built larger mining facilities on Navassa with barrack housing for 140 black contract laborers from Maryland, houses for white supervisors, a blacksmith shop, warehouses, and a church. Mining began in 1865. The workers dug out the guano by dynamite and pick-axe and hauled it in rail cars to the landing point at Lulu Bay, where it was sacked and lowered onto boats for transfer to the Company barque, the S.S. Romance. The living quarters at Lulu Bay were called Lulu Town, as appears on old maps. Railway tracks eventually extended inland.

Hauling guano by muscle-power in the fierce tropical heat, combined with general disgruntlement with conditions on the island eventually provoked a rebellion on the island in 1889. Five supervisors died in the fighting. A U.S. warship returned eighteen of the workers to Baltimore for three separate trials on murder charges. A black fraternal society, the Order of Galilean Fisherman, raised money to defend the miners in federal court, and the defense rested its case on the contention that the men acted in self-defense or in the heat of passion and that in any case the United States did not have proper jurisdiction over the island. The cases, including Jones v. United States, 137 U.S. 202 (1890) went to the U.S. Supreme Court in October 1890, which ruled the Guano Act constitutional, and three of the miners were scheduled for execution in the spring of 1891. A grass-roots petition drive by black churches around the country, also signed by white jurors from the three trials, reached President Benjamin Harrison, however, who commuted the sentences to imprisonment.

Guano mining resumed on Navassa but at a much reduced level. The Spanish-American War of 1898 forced the Phosphate Company to evacuate the island and file for bankruptcy, and the new owners abandoned the place to the booby birds after 1901.

Navassa became significant again with the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. Shipping between the American eastern seaboard and the Canal goes through the Windward Passage between Cuba and Haiti. Navassa, which had always been a hazard to navigation, needed a lighthouse. The U.S. Lighthouse Service built Navassa Island Light, a 162 foot (46 m) tower on the island in 1917, 395 feet (120 m) above sea level. A keeper and two assistants were assigned to live there until the United States Lighthouse Service installed an automatic beacon in 1929. After absorbing the Lighthouse Service in 1939, the U.S. Coast Guard serviced the light twice each year. The U.S. Navy set up an observation post for the duration of World War II. The island has not been inhabited since then.

A scientific expedition from Harvard University studied the land and marine life of the island in 1930. Since World War II, amateur radio operators have landed frequently to operate from the territory, which is accorded “country” status by the American Radio Relay League. Fishermen, mainly from Haiti, fish the waters around Navassa.

From 1903 to 1917, Navassa was a dependency of the U.S. Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, and from 1917 to 1996 it was under United States Coast Guard administration. Since 16 January 1996, it has been administered by U.S. Department of the Interior. On August 29, 1996, the United States Coast Guard dismantled the light on Navassa. An inter-agency task force headed by the U.S. Department of State transferred the island to the U.S. Department of the Interior. By Secretary’s Order No. 3205 of January 16, 1997, the Interior Department assumed control of the island and placed the island under its Office of Insular Affairs. For statistical purposes, Navassa was grouped with the now-obsolete term United States Miscellaneous Caribbean Islands and is now grouped with other islands claimed under the Guano Islands Act islands as the United States Minor Outlying Islands.

A 1998 scientific expedition led by the Center for Marine Conservation in Washington D.C. described Navassa as “a unique preserve of Caribbean biodiversity.” The island’s land and offshore ecosystems have survived the twentieth century virtually untouched. The island will be studied by annual scientific expeditions for the next decade at least.

By Secretary’s Order No. 3210 of December 3, 1999, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service assumed administrative responsibility for Navassa, which became a National Wildlife Refuge Overlay, also known as Navassa Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Office of Insular Affairs retains authority for the island’s political affairs and judicial authority is exercised directly by the nearest U.S. Circuit Court. Access to Navassa is hazardous and visitors need permission from the Fish and Wildlife Office in Boqueron, Puerto Rico in order to enter its territorial waters or land. Since this change of status, amateur radio operators have repeatedly been denied entry. Since, under the callsign KP1, this is a particularly rare “entity,” attempts are being made to have Congress allow entry. It is understood that, should permission be received, the island’s ecological integrity would be carefully respected.

Geography Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, 35 miles west of Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti
Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 75 02 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total: 5.4 sq km
land: 5.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area – comparative: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 8 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: marine, tropical
Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on southwest side 77 m
Natural resources: guano
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Natural hazards: hurricanes
Environment – current issues: NA
Geography – note: strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock with numerous solution holes but with enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig trees, scattered cactus
People Population: uninhabited
note: transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on the island

Honest, Truthful American History

Honest, Truthful American History

 

On old wooden leaky boats smaller than a rich mans toys

We all climbed in and to this new world we set our sails

There’s some that have joined us who are looking for gold and fame

Most came for the hope of land that they could till in their own name

 

Roanoke Island, Jamestown on the river off the Chesapeake Bay

To Plymouth by the Rock these old creaky boats found their way

Pushed, pulled and chased yet most whites came by their own will

Many really had no choice, poverty and the laws chased them away

 

This strange new world with all this lumber and open land to claim

An extension of Heaven to all white males this land lays in wait

Wait, who are these strange red faces, with arrows pointed our way

Indians, so-called by Captain Columbus and his misfit crews I think

 

America, with all these wide open spaces surely I can make my way

White male land owners ordained, we shall be from sea to shining sea

These Indians don’t matter there just good excuse to use our black powder

What our white mans diseases don’t wipe out we will turn into our slaves

 

America, Valhalla to all white males who have the guts, guns and gold to stay

Kill all the Indian Braves then turn all who are left breathing into our slaves

The Chinese aren’t white so we can use them like dogs to lay our steel highways

Then these Black Devils from Africa, they are only good for work, whips and chains

 

Why should we be forced to stop at our borders whether by land or by the seas

Canada to our north settled by the French so of course we have every right to invade

To our south we burst through their front door to Mexico City we rode without shame

Spanish, Mexicans and them damn Indians, if we killed them all who would care anyway

 

Our gold bought Alaska from those Russians so damn it, no war, we didn’t get to play

Then of course there were those primitive Hawaiians, not knowing what we had in store

With big guns and ships we invaded their Islands, killed half the men, imprisoned their Queen

Now their land is our land as we buried our flag in their sand, you know we always want more

 

Is it through ego or arrogance that why some of us don’t understand the outside world

Why do some roll their eyes and snicker when we say that peace and human rights are our stay

America, I do still believe that she is the best nation to ever give her people a somewhat honest chance

So don’t get angry when others see us different, just look at Nixon, Trump the Bushes and Guantanamo Bay

 

 

 

 

Honest, Truthful American History

Honest, Truthful American History

 

On old wooden leaky boats smaller than a rich mans toys

We all climbed in and to this new world we set our sails

There’s some that have joined us who are looking for gold and fame

Most came for the hope of land that they could till in their own name

 

Roanoke Island, Jamestown on the river off the Chesapeake Bay

To Plymouth by the Rock these old creaky boats found their way

Pushed, pulled and chased yet most whites came by their own will

Many really had no choice, poverty and the laws chased them away

 

This strange new world with all this lumber and open land to claim

An extension of Heaven to all white males this land lays in wait

Wait, who are these strange red faces, with arrows pointed our way

Indians, so-called by Captain Columbus and his misfit crews I think

 

America, with all these wide open spaces surely I can make my way

White male land owners ordained, we shall be from sea to shining sea

These Indians don’t matter there just good excuse to use our black powder

What our white mans diseases don’t wipe out we will turn into our slaves

 

America, Valhalla to all white males who have the guts, guns and gold to stay

Kill all the Indian Braves then turn all who are left breathing into our slaves

The Chinese aren’t white so we can use them like dogs to lay our steel highways

Then these Black Devils from Africa, they are only good for work, whips and chains

 

Why should we be forced to stop at our borders whether by land or by the seas

Canada to our north settled by the French so of course we have every right to invade

To our south we burst through their front door to Mexico City we rode without shame

Spanish, Mexicans and them damn Indians, if we killed them all who would care anyway

 

Our gold bought Alaska from those Russians so damn it, no war, we didn’t get to play

Then of course there were those primitive Hawaiians, not knowing what we had in store

With big guns and ships we invaded their Islands, killed half the men, imprisoned their Queen

Now their land is our land as we buried our flag in their sand, you know we always want more

 

Is it through ego or arrogance that why some of us don’t understand the outside world

Why do some roll their eyes and snicker when we say that peace and human rights are our stay

America, I do still believe that she is the best nation to ever give her people a somewhat honest chance

So don’t get angry when others see us different, just look at Nixon, Trump the Bushes and Guantanamo Bay

 

 

 

 

Hillary Clinton Is Guilty Of Massive Treason Why Is She Not In Prison?

 

Here in America most people are well aware that there are different laws for the rich and famous than there is for all the working stiffs. Rich, famous, politicians are almost impossible to bring to justice when they are breaking the laws of our country even when the laws they broke put the whole country in jeopardy. Think of it this way, it’s like trying to stop a Cop who is drunk on duty and driving a 100 plus miles per hour down the highway, they know that the public can’t stop them and give them a ticket, this is why so many Police Officers in this country are so arrogant toward the general public. Besides reality is that there would be a very good chance that if you did try to make the Officer obey the laws there is a very good chance that it would be you who would either be put in jail, or worse. This situation is even worse when a high-ranking politician is randomly committing what is treason like when the arrogant habitual liar Hillary Clinton is concerned. Lots of people in very high places want to make sure that the White House stays in the hands of a Democrat, even if it is a lazy ass like Mrs. Clinton. If you are tuned into reality at all you know that I am speaking of the current resident of the White House and his Attorney General. Does this also make them guilty of the same treasonous acts being they know exactly what she did, they know it was totally against the law yet they protect her? Why? Is it because they care more about politics than the people? You have heard of guilty by association haven’t you? Just in case you are wondering why I called Mrs. Clinton a lazy ass is because she didn’t want to have to be bothered with using the State Department’s secured computer server. To lazy and too arrogant to care that she was running Top Secret and above messages across her unsecured server knowing that Russia, China, and only God knows who all else was reading all of those messages. Folks, that is treason. Mrs. Clinton should have been put in cuffs the moment it was discovered that she did these things. Folks if she can’t be trusted to protect the people of this country from the people who want us all dead, just what would make a person think that as President she could be trusted to protect we the people? Instead of putting a traitor like her in Leavenworth maybe there is an open cell for the likes of her at Guantanamo.