Research Finds Gigantic Masses in Earth’s Mantle Untouched for More Than 4 Billion Years

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OD SCITECHDAILY)

 

Research Finds Gigantic Masses in Earth’s Mantle Untouched for More Than 4 Billion Years

Earth's Layers

This image shows the divisions between Earth’s layers. The ancient, continent-sized rock regions encircle the liquid outer core. Credit: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Ancient, distinct, continent-sized regions of rocks, isolated since before the collision that created the Moon 4.5 billion years ago, exist hundreds of miles below the Earth’s crust, offering a window into the building blocks of our planet, according to new research.

The new study in the AGU Journal Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems used models to trace the location and origin of volcanic rock samples found throughout the world back to two solid continents in the deep mantle. The new research suggests the specific giant rock regions have existed for 4.5 billion years, since Earth’s beginning.

Previously, scientists theorized that separated continents in the deep mantle came from subducted oceanic plates. But the new study indicates these distinct regions may have been formed from an ancient magma ocean that solidified during the beginning of Earth’s formation and may have survived the massive Moon-creating impact.

Determining the masses’ origin reveals more details about their evolution and composition, as well as clues about primordial Earth’s history in the early Solar System, according to the study’s authors.

It’s amazing that these regions have survived most of Earth’s volcanic history relatively untouched, said Curtis Williams, a geologist at the University of California, Davis, in Davis, California and lead author of the study.

Looking inward

The mantle is a layer of rock, stretching 2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles) down inside the Earth. Earth’s molten, liquid, metallic core lies beneath the mantle. The core-mantle boundary is where the solid mantle meets the metallic liquid core.

Scientists knew from past seismic imaging studies that two individual rock bodies existed near the core-mantle boundary. One solid rock body is under Africa and the other is under the Pacific Ocean.

Seismic waves, the vibrations produced by earthquakes, move differently through these masses than the rest of the mantle, suggesting they have distinct physical properties from the surrounding mantle. But geologists couldn’t determine whether seismic waves moved differently through the core-mantle continents because of differences in their temperature, mineral composition or density, or some combination of these properties. That meant they could only hypothesize about the separate rocky masses’ origin and history.

“We had all of these geochemical measurements from Earth’s surface, but we didn’t know how to relate these geochemical measurements to regions of Earth’s interior. We had all of these geophysical images of the Earth’s interior, but we didn’t know how to relate that to the geochemistry at Earth’s surface,” Williams said.

Primitive material and plumes

Williams and his colleagues wanted to determine the distinct masses’ origin and evolution to learn more about Earth’s composition and past. To do this, they needed to be able to identify samples at Earth’s surface with higher concentrations of primitive material and then trace those samples back to their origins.

Scientists often take rock samples from volcanic regions like Hawaii and Iceland, where deep mantle plumes, or columns of extremely hot rock, rise from the areas near the core, melt in the shallow mantle and emerge far from tectonic fault lines. These samples are made of igneous rock created from cooling lava. The study’s authors used an existing database of samples and also collected new samples from volcanically active areas like the Balleny Islands in Antarctica.

Geologists can measure specific isotopes in igneous rocks to learn more about the origin and evolution of the Earth. Some isotopes, like Helium-3, are primordial, meaning they were created during the Big Bang. Rocks closer to Earth’s crust have less of the isotope than rocks deeper underground that were never exposed to air. Samples with more Helium-3 are thought to come from more primitive rocks in the mantle.

The researchers found some of the samples they studied had more Helium-3, indicating they may have come from primitive rocks deep in the Earth’s mantle.

The researchers then used a new model to trace how these primitive samples could have gotten to the Earth’s surface from the mantle. Geological models assume plumes rise vertically from deep within the mantle to the Earth’s surface. But plumes can move off course, deflected, due to various reasons. The new model took into account this plume deflection, allowing the study’s authors to trace the samples back to the two giant masses near the core-mantle boundary.

The combination of the isotope information and the new model allowed the researchers to determine the composition of the two giant masses and theorize how they may have formed.

Understanding the composition of specific rock masses near the core-mantle boundary helps geologists conceptualize ancient Earth-shaping processes that led to the modern-day mantle, according to the study’s authors.

“It’s a more robust framework to try and answer these questions in terms of not making these assumptions of vertically rising material but rather to take into account how much deflection these plumes have seen,” Williams said.

Reference: “Primitive Helium Is Sourced From Seismically Slow Regions in the Lowermost Mantle” by C. D. Williams, S. Mukhopadhyay, M. L. Rudolph and B. Romanowicz, 31 July 2019, Journal Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Could Our Universe Be Inside Of A Black Hole?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE UK EXPRESS)

 

Black hole shock: Our universe could be INSIDE a black hole – shock claim

BLACK holes could be a portal to another universe and our cosmos could have been born from one, a scientist has sensationally claimed.

Black holes: Scientist reveals how Earth could be destroyed

Pause

Mute

Current Time 0:47
/
Duration 2:26

Loaded: 0%

Progress: 0%

FacebookTwitterShareFullscreen

While the accepted theory on the universe began is the big bang, there are other equally baffling theories. One such is that our universe was born from a black hole opening in another parallel universe and that each black hole in our cosmos could be a gateway to another universe. At the beginning of time, 13.8 billion years ago, there was a dense and super-hot energetic point where the laws of physics did not apply – what is known as a singularity.

The only other time in the universe where a singularity occurs and the laws of physics are thrown out of the window is at the event horizon of a black hole, which is unexplainable by current scientific methods.

There are a few ways in which a black hole can form.

Scientists believe the most common instance is when a star, thousands of times the size of our sun, collapses in on itself when it dies – known as a supernova.

Another way is when a large amount of matter, which can be in the form of a gas cloud or a star collapses in on itself through its own gravitational pull.

black hole universe

Black hole shock: Our universe could be INSIDE a black hole – shock claim (Image: GETTY)

black hole

Our universe could have been born from a black hole opening in another parallel universe (Image: GETTY)

Finally, the collision of two neutron stars can cause a black hole.

The gist of all three ways is that a massive amount of mass located in one spot can cause a black hole with it essentially ripping a hole in the fabric of space-time.

This has led some to believe that the Big Bang was actually a black hole opening in another universe, allowing the matter which has spewed through from that portal to create our own portal.

The matter that has been spewing through for 13.8 billion years could also explain why the universe is ever-expanding.

READ MORE: Black hole bombshell: Scientists stunned by ‘freaky’ first

BLACK HOLE

“Every black hole would produce a new, baby universe inside” (Image: GETTY)

Sravanthi Sureshkumar, a physicist from Meenakshi College, India, explained on Q+A site Quora: “Every black hole would produce a new, baby universe inside. If that is true, then the first matter in our universe came from somewhere else.

“Our universe may exist inside a black hole. This may sound strange, but it could actually be the best explanation of how the universe began, and what we observe today.

DON’T MISS
Black hole warning: Astronomer’s dire prediction over Earth’s future [COMMENT]
Are unexplained space shapes ‘evidence of prior universe’? [RESEARCH]
NASA footage shows black hole CONSUME a star in ‘tidal disruption’ VIDEO]

BLACK HOLE

What is a black hole? (Image: EXPRESS)

“Just as we cannot see what is going on inside black holes in the cosmos, any observers in the parent universe could not see what is going on in ours.

“The motion of matter through the black hole’s boundary called an ‘event horizon’, would only happen in one direction, providing a direction of time that we perceive as moving forward.”

5 Lies You Were Taught About the Earth

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRAVEL TRIVIA)

 

5 Lies You Were Taught About the Earth

When it comes to our home planet, it can be hard to separate fact from fiction. For instance, in spite of what you may have heard in history or science class, it’s not, in fact, possible to see the Great Wall of China from outer space.

And that’s not the only common misconception about Earth. Here are some of the biggest lies you were probably taught about Earth.

Columbus Discovered That the Earth Is Round

An old model ship
Credit: Theera Disayarat / Shutterstock.com

You’ve probably heard the famous “in fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue” poem. As the legend goes, against all odds, Christopher Columbus headed out on a voyage to East Asia by heading west instead of east from Europe. The monarchy (who funded the trip) was worried that Columbus would never return because, of course, Earth was a big flat pancake and he might fall off.

Even by the 1400s, flat Earth theories had already been debunked, and the orb shape was already accepted after being proposed by Pythagoras thousands of years before. In fact, the voyage was plotted out based on the fact that the Earth was round! Coming upon America was a surprise, however.

You Can See The Great Wall of China From Space

The Great Wall of China
Credit: zhao jiankang / Shutterstock.com

It makes for a great story: Way up from outer space, astronauts can gaze upon the Great Wall of China. We hate to tell you, this not true.

While the wall may be great, according to NASA, it’s less visible than you might think from outer space. In fact, Chinese astronaut Yang Liwei reported that he wasn’t able to see the structure from space. Other astronauts have reported that it’s barely visible with a telephoto lens but not to the naked eye.

However, there’s still some good news for astro-followers: Certain landmarks, like cities and major reservoirs, are visible from space.

Earth Is Closer to The Sun in Summer

The sun rising above Earth in outer space
Credit: Skylines / Shutterstock.com

It seems like sound logic: it’s hotter in the summer because the Earth is closer to the sun at that time of year, right? Sorry, but no.

Consider this. If that were the case, how could it be summer in the southern hemisphere at the same time it’s winter in the northern hemisphere?

While it’s a little harder to wrap your mind around, it’s all based on the angle of the Earth. The Earth tilts, and its axis can vary throughout the course of its cycle. This is what causes the difference in seasons. A greater tilt means hotter summers and colder winters.

A Compass Always Points Due North

A compass sitting on a rock
Credit: R_Tee / iStock

If you trust movies and TV, then you’re apt to think that a compass will always point due north. However, this isn’t quite the case. A compass points to the magnetic north. This is an important distinction because the magnetic pole changes based on activity in the Earth’s core.

That’s right: the magnetic pole that attracts all compasses is a moving target. It has been moving rapidly in recent years — as much as 30 or more miles per year. So be sure to take your compass reading with a grain of salt!

Deserts Are Always Hot

A desert landscape in Joshua Tree National Park
Credit: Joke van Eeghem / Shutterstock.com

While the term “desert” probably makes you think of miles of sand and heat-induced mirages, deserts are not always hot.

A desert is considered any place that receives less than 10 inches of rain per year. This isn’t limited to hot places. For example, many of the polar regions of the world could be considered deserts because they don’t get much precipitation.

Doesn’t it feel good to unearth (get it?) the truth? There are plenty of misconceptions about the planet that we call home. But as time goes on and we learn more, we’re correcting these long-held, so-called “truths.”

Last reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field took twice as long as previously thought

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF PHYSICS WORLD)

 

Last reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field took twice as long as previously thought

12 Aug 2019
Geomagnetic field
(Credit: Dormy and Dion)

The last full reversal of the Earth’s geomagnetic field took at least 22,000 years to complete, researchers from the US and Japan have revealed. The finding, which was derived by combining volcanic, sedimentary and ice-core records, suggests that reversals can take several times longer than was previously thought. It also further challenges the notion that a future reversal might be completed within a human lifetime.

The geomagnetic field is produced by the motion of the Earth’s liquid outer core, which acts as a dynamo. Although superficially stable – and presently reliable enough to navigate by – the field does change with time. At present, for example, the magnetic North Pole is in the process of drifting towards Siberia, while the field strength has been decreasing steadily by around 5% for each century since human records began.

Records in the rocks

With magnetically aligned minerals in certain rocks having left us with a record of the magnetic field at the time they were formed, we know that such a weakening can be a precursor to a so-called excursion – in which the magnetic poles shift by up to around 45 degree – or a full blown reversal, in which the field flips and settles upside down. These events, products of growing instabilities in the geodynamo, appear to occur every several hundred thousands years or so.

“Reversals are generated in the deeper parts of the Earth’s interior, but the effects manifest themselves all the way through the Earth,” explains Brad Singer, a geologist at the University of Wisconsin Madison.

Exactly what impact a future reversal might have on human civilization, navigation and communications, however, is unclear. And scientists still don’t understand what causes them, how long a reversal would take, and what the warning signs of one might be.

“Unless you have complete, accurate and high-resolution record of what a field reversal really is like at the surface of the Earth, it’s difficult to even discuss what the mechanics of generating a reversal are,” Singer notes.

Better measurements

To help develop a more accurate picture, Singer and his colleagues took magnetic readings of rock samples from seven lava flows from the Canary Islands, the Caribbean, Chile, Hawaii and Tahiti. They also determined the age of the samples using a newly-enhanced method of potassium-argon radioisotope dating.

“Lava flows are ideal recorders of the magnetic field. They have a lot of iron-bearing minerals and when they cool, they lock in the direction of the field,” says Singer. “But it’s a spotty record. No volcanoes are erupting continuously. So we’re relying on careful field work to identify the right records.”

The team complemented their lava-flow records with two other sources of data on the historic orientation of the geomagnetic field. The first of these were magnetic readings taken from the sea floor, which are less precise than those taken from lava flows – due to variations in sediment rates, weaker magnetization, and biological disruption that can smear the preserved magnetic orientations – but can provide a more continuous record.

Secondly, the researchers took measurements of beryllium deposits across time, as preserved in Antarctic ice cores. Beryllium is produced when cosmos rays hit the atmosphere, which means that periods in which the magnetic field was weaker – and therefore allows more radiation to pass through it – can be identified by increased beryllium in the ice cores.

Combined together, the various records allowed the researchers to piece together the nature of the geomagnetic field over a 70,000-year period centered around the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal – the last time the field completely flipped over, around 784,000 years ago.

Longer reversal

Singer and colleagues found that the final reversal was relatively rapid by geological standards, taking less than 4000 years. However, it was preceded by two individual excursions within a period of instability lasting 18,000 years – more than twice as long as recent research had suggested reversals should take.

“I’ve been working on this problem for 25 years,” said Singer. “And now we have a richer and better-dated record of this last reversal than ever before.”

Andrew Roberts, an earth scientist from the Australian National University who was not involved in the present study, said: “I take these results to indicate that the last magnetic polarity reversal occurred during a prolonged period of time in which Earth’s magnetic field was weak and unstable.”

Roberts also notes that it is still possible that the main reversal occurred rapidly. “There have been other prolonged unstable periods, such the Blake and post-Blake events between 120 and 90 thousand years ago, during which the field has been demonstrated to have changed extremely rapidly.”

Gillian Turner, a geophysicist from the Victoria University of Wellington who also was not involved in the study, agrees: “As the accuracy and resolution of dating both volcanic rocks and sedimentary sequences continues to improve, we should expect to see excursion activity associated with successful polarity reversals more and more often.”

The research is described in the journal Science Advances.

The biggest moons in our solar system

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIP TRIVIA)

 

The biggest moons in our solar system

Janus. Phoebe. Hyperion. Europa. Most of the planetary satellites in our solar system have cool names like these — names pulled mainly from ancient mythology. But our own natural satellite? In English anyway, the single moon that orbits our planet goes by the unimaginative name, “the moon.” Why?

It turns out the name “Moon” wasn’t lame until we started discovering satellites orbiting other planets, and we made the fatal mistake of calling them “moons.” It’s somewhat confusing that the proper noun “Moon,” derived from the old English word “Mona,” was co-opted to become a generic name for any planetary satellite.

Happily, languages other than English are not so afflicted. The Moon is known in Spanish as LunaSelene in Greek, Mweze in Swahili, and Kuu in Estonian.

Regarding the other satellites in our solar system whose names are higher on the cool scale: they come in all shapes and sizes, from irregular chunks of rock and ice to giant, complex spheres. Of the over 100 moons that have been observed in our solar system (with many more waiting to be discovered), here are the five largest.

5. Earth’s Moon

Credit: NASA / JSC

It happens that the fifth-largest satellite in our solar system is our own un-inspirationally named moon, at a diameter of 3,475 kilometers (about 2,160 miles).

Fun fact: It’s not by accident that the same side of the moon faces the Earth throughout its orbit: The moon rotates on its axis with the same period as its revolution around Earth. This phenomenon, called “tidal locking,” is caused by the influence of Earth’s gravity on the moon, and is not unique to the Earth-moon system; it is found in many other planetary satellites in our solar system.

4. Io

Credit: NASA / JPLUSGS

At a diameter of 3,636 kilometers (2,260 miles), Io is only slightly larger than our moon and orbits Jupiter. It’s Jupiter’s fifth-closest known moon, and was discovered in 1610 by none other than telescope inventor Galileo Galilei.

Fun fact: Io has over 400 active volcanoes on its surface, making it the most geologically active object in our solar system.

3. Callisto

Credit: NASA

Another of Galileo’s 1610 discoveries, Callisto also orbits Jupiter. At 4,800 kilometers (just under 3,000 miles) in diameter, it is almost the same size as the planet Mercury. Like our Moon, Callisto is tidally locked to its parent planet.

Fun fact: Although it is nearly the size of Mercury, Callisto has only one-third of Mercury’s density. This suggests that about half of Callisto is composed of water ice, and there may be a liquid-water ocean under the satellite’s crust.

2. Titan

Credit: NASA

The aptly named Titan is quite large indeed, at a diameter of 5,151 kilometers (3,200 miles). Unique among the many satellites in the solar system, Titan has an atmosphere, although you can’t breathe it: It’s 95 percent nitrogen and 5 percent methane. It was discovered by Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens in 1655.

Fun fact: Titan’s dense atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect that traps solar energy near the moon’s surface. Temperatures on Titan are a comparatively balmy −179° C (290° below-zero Fahrenheit).

1. Ganymede

Credit: NASA

Galileo was on a hot streak in 1610. In addition to finding Io and Callisto, he used his newly-invented telescope to spot Europa and Ganymede orbiting Jupiter.

To be fair, Ganymede was the low-hanging fruit in that bunch. At 5,268 kilometers (3,273 miles_ in diameter, Ganymede edges Titan for the “largest moon” honor; it is larger than not only Mercury but also Pluto, the one-time planet that was demoted to dwarf planet status in 2006.

Fun fact: Like Callisto, Ganymede is believed to have a water ocean beneath its crust that completely covers the moon’s interior.

Earth was hit by the most powerful gamma ray photon blast ever recorded

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE UK’S METRO NEWS)

 

Earth hit by most powerful cosmic gamma ray photon blast ever recorded Jasper Hamill Wednesday 31 Jul 2019 10:11am Share this article via facebook Share this article via twitter Share this article via messenger 13 SHARES The Crab Nebula, which is located in an arm of the Milky Way 6,500 light-years from Earth Scientists have recorded the most powerful ‘gamma-ray’ blast to ever hit our planet. The cosmic beam was detected by the Tibet AS-gamma Experiment, a collaboration between Japanese and Chinese researchers. Gamma rays are electromagnetic waves with a very short wavelength which are produced during dramatic events in space such as the death of stars in massive supernova explosions. Other electromagnetic waves include radio waves and microwaves. If a strong gamma-ray hit a human, it could kill them or damage their cells and cause cancer. Luckily, Earthlings are protected from gamma rays, which tend to break apart into small particles when they crash into our atmosphere before showering down on Earth, where they can be detected by scientists. MORE: TECH Facebook can literally read your mind and ‘decode’ your thoughts Apple made $53,800,000,000 in the last three months You need to update your iPhone because Google says so To find the particles as they rained down on our planet, scientists placed 597 detectors across 65,700 square metre area in Tibet. They also placed 64 concrete barrels filled with water which can also detect the gamma-ray remnants. This experiment allowed to detect the power and source of the gamma-ray photons – the name of the tiny, basic particles in light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation including gamma-rays. They were measured at 100 tera-electron volts (TeV)l, which is one trillion electron volts or roughly 10 times the maximum energy recorded by the Large Hadron Collider when it is used to smash particles together. It was calculated that the photons emanated from the Crab Nebula – a cloud of dust and gas left behind when a star went kaboom in a supernova so bright it was observed by Chinese astronomers working in the 11th century AD. Scientists cannot fully explain why the nebula produces such powerful gamma rays, but it’s believed the system is home to a rapidly spinning star called a pulsar, which rotates at high speeds and emit powerful beams of electromagnetic radiation. Share this article via facebook Share this article via twitter Share this article via messenger MOREN asa First lucky star to ‘escape’ the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole discovered Here’s how to get the WHOLE family more active (and it’ll be fun, promise!) Three supermassive monster black holes ‘caught in the act’ of coming together The moon is covered in human poo Add comment » MUST READ Elderly pair giggle like children as they get chance to dip their toes in the sea The pair were overjoyed to feel the sea on their feet once more. Homeless man left to die in bus stop ‘like trash on the road’ His lifeless body was discovered in the bus stop this morning where he had been living for months. Seesaw at US-Mexican border lets children play together in defiance against Trump Friendships are being built over the border wall. Moment of relief as dad is reunited with son who vanished overnight People were being urged to check their gardens, garages and sheds in case he stayed there. Man who can’t stop masturbating in fields of horses is in prison again Malcolm Downes has a ‘long, long history’ of masturbating near horses and was first jailed in 2016 for the ‘totally disgusting’ behaviour. Animal lover, 79, sentenced to jail for feeding stray cats Cat lover Nancy Segula was ordered to spent a week and a half in a notoriously rough jail for repeatedly breaking a local law banning residents from feeding cats and dogs Police hunt woman who strolled into supermarket then peed on potatoes The woman strolled into the store, then relieved herself on the tubers in front of a horrified worker Huge hoard of cats discovered living on dump surviving on rubbish WHAT’S TRENDING NOW More trending stories »

 

Read more: https://metro.co.uk/2019/07/31/earth-hit-powerful-cosmic-gamma-ray-photon-blast-ever-recorded-10492620/?ito=cbshare

Twitter: https://twitter.com/MetroUK | Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MetroUK/

Global Warming Shrank India’s Economy By 31%

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE HINDUSTAN TIMES OF INDIA)

 

Global warming shrank Indian economy by 31%: Study

The study from 1961 to 2010, global warming decreased the wealth per person in the world’s poorest countries by 17 to 30 per cent.

WORLD Updated: Apr 23, 2019 11:46 IST

Press Trust of India
Press Trust of India
Boston
global warming,Indian economy,nigeria
Global warming shrank Indian economy by 31%: Study(AFP)

Global warming has caused the Indian economy to be 31 per cent smaller than it would otherwise have been, according to a Stanford study which shows how Earth’s temperature changes have increased inequalities.

The study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that growing concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere since 1960s have enriched cool countries like Norway and Sweden, while dragging down economic growth in warm countries such as India and Nigeria.

“Our results show that most of the poorest countries on Earth are considerably poorer than they would have been without global warming,” said climate scientist Noah Diffenbaugh, from Stanford University in the US.

“At the same time, the majority of rich countries are richer than they would have been,” Diffenbaugh said in a statement.

The study from 1961 to 2010, global warming decreased the wealth per person in the world’s poorest countries by 17 to 30 per cent. Meanwhile, the gap between the group of nations with the highest and lowest economic output per person is now approximately 25 per cent larger than it would have been without climate change.

While the impacts of temperature may seem small from year to year, they can yield dramatic gains or losses over time. “This is like a savings account, where small differences in the interest rate will generate large differences in the account balance over 30 or 50 years,” said Diffenbaugh. After accumulating decades of small effects from warming, India’s economy is now 31 per cent smaller than it would have been in the absence of global warming, he said.

Although economic inequality between countries has decreased in recent decades, the research suggests the gap would have narrowed faster without global warming.

The study builds on previous research in the team analysed 50 years of annual temperature and GDP measurements for 165 countries to estimate the effects of temperature fluctuations on economic growth. They demonstrated that growth during warmer than average years has accelerated in cool nations and slowed in warm nations.

“The historical data clearly show that crops are more productive, people are healthier and we are more productive at work when temperatures are neither too hot nor too cold,” said Marshall Burke, a Stanford assistant professor of Earth system science. “This means that in cold countries, a little bit of warming can help. The opposite is true in places that are already hot,” said Burke.

Researchers combined data from more than 20 climate models developed by research centres around the world. Using the climate models to isolate how much each country has already warmed due to human-caused climate change, the researchers were able to determine what each country’s economic output might have been had temperatures not warmed.

“For most countries, whether global warming has helped or hurt economic growth is pretty certain,” said Burke. Tropical countries, in particular, tend to have temperatures far outside the ideal for economic growth. “There’s essentially no uncertainty that they’ve been harmed,” he said.

It’s less clear how warming has influenced growth in countries in the middle latitudes, including the US, China and Japan. For these and other temperate-climate nations, the analysis reveals economic impacts of less than 10 per cent.

First Published: Apr 23, 2019 11:46 IST

(MAKE THE WORLD GREAT AGAIN SEND ALL THE POLITICIANS ON A ONE WAY TRIP TO MARS) (oldpoet56)

Creationism AND Evolution: There Is Truth In Both Of Them

Creationism AND Evolution: There Is Truth In Both Of Them

 

I am a devout life long Christian yet I have for most of my adult life debated how Christians (for the most part) are so oblivious to reality and to the Truths that are shown us in the Bible. So many people who believe in the Bible as the Holy Spirit Inspired Word Of God (as I also do) tend to read the Bible with ‘Church Doctrine’ blinders on. Back in the time of the Apostles and the time that Jesus walked the Earth when they taught in the Synagogues the people studied the Scriptures to see if what they were being taught was the truth or not. Just because your Preacher or a Church Elder, Bishop, or if you are Catholic, even the Pope, tells you something it is your Christian obligation to search out the Scriptures to see if what you are being told is Biblical truth.

 

Reality is that the ignorance of Christians/Churches have convinced millions if not billions of people throughout history to turn their backs on the Jewish and the Christian faith. Right from the very first book of the Bible (Genesis) Christians and Jews do not understand what we are so plainly being told. Yes the world and all in it were created in six days, but those six days are not, were not, human days, they were God’s days. I nor any other human knows what one of God’s days represent compared to a human day but Scripture tells us over and over again that God’s days are not our days yet humans keep trying to make that be so anyway. Even in our own solar system every single planet that circles the sun has a different amount of our hours in one of their days. Some will, through their ego’s say, well why didn’t Moses just lay it all our for us so we could know exactly everything? Folks, almost all of the humans that were alive about 3,600-3,700 human years ago calculated time through their own ancestors which normally only traversed back 3, 4, or 5 generations at best. Do you honestly think if Moses had started teaching them of thinks that happened 3 or 4 billion years ago that these people would have listened to him? What if Moses had started laying out the lineage of Dinosaurs, what do you think they would have done? My guess is that the people would have shunned him for being a crazy man.

 

Most all of us know some about the story of Adam and Eve from the first two chapters of Genesis but my question to everyone is, just how well have you read it? Have you just taken the word of the Church you attend as to what the Scripture actually is telling us all? Please reread the first two chapters. If you will notice in the first chapter Adam was created but before His creation God created ‘men and women, and, God created He them’. After God had created multiple ‘men and women’ God created Adam. Now in the first chapter, after God did all of His creating of those ‘Six Days’, God rested from His work on the 7th day. Then after all His work was done and He had created the first group of people (the Gentiles) and Adam, then in chapter #2 God then created Eve to be a help mate for Adam. Folks, the ‘promised one, the Messiah, Jesus The Christ’ lineage is traced back through the ‘Royal Blood Line’ to Adam, actually to Eve. There were two human creations, the gentiles, and the Royal Blood Line of Adam. Adam and Eve were about 5,500 human years ago yet humans were on this planet many thousands of years before this time. Jesus Himself referred to us Gentiles as “people before this time whom were not a people”. Jesus was pointing out that before His time here on Earth, before His Resurrection that salvation was only to the Jews and to no one else. So, people who were not a people, Gentiles! These are simple truths laid out in writing for us all to see yet we choose to remain blind. Think about a few things we are told here in the beginning of Genesis. After Cain had murdered his brother Able God banished Cain to the East of Eden in the land of Nod. God put a mark on the forehead of Cain so that “all who find him would not kill him”, folks, all of who? There were only 3 people left on the planet right, just Cain, his Mom Eve and his Dad Adam, so all of whom? Then after Cain had been banished he took a wife, wait a minute, where did she come from? Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible/Torah through the guidance of God’s Spirit, whom we tend to call the Holy Spirit from the New Testament. The Truth of the Scriptures are right before our eyes, but we have been trained not to see the real Truth. We have been taught Church doctrines instead which has run many millions of people away from God’s teachings.

 

If Moses had told the people of his time that the world was about 4-5 billion years old and that the planet we call Earth had started with a big interstellar bang what do you think the people would have done to him? At the very least they would have thought him to be crazy and no one would have paid him any mind. To my Christian and Jewish brothers, yes there were such things as dinosaurs and there has been life on this planet for several hundred millions of human years. I did not say that there has been human life here on Earth for hundreds of millions of our years, just life itself. God does not want us to be ignorant for ignorance begets death, physical and spiritual. Science has pretty much discovered/proven that human life has been on this planet for hundreds of thousands of years, not just the 5,000-5,500 years since Adam and Eve. I am not an archaeologist even though I am a huge fan of history. I know that science has been looking for the so-called ‘missing link’ between Primates and Humans for longer than I have been alive. This is like trying to find that pot of gold at the end of a rainbow, it doesn’t exist folks.

 

Evolution, is there such a thing? Of course there is folks. As an example I would like to use the people science calls Neanderthals. For most of my life time scientist have wondered what happened to them, why did they go extinct? Just like the people before them who bred with them the same thing happened to them, they were bred out of existence. You can breed cattle with buffalo and you get what is called beefalo. You can take oranges and breed them with tangerines and you get a product called tangelos. In Scripture the ‘House of Israel’ was forbidden to mix blood with any of the Gentiles, if they did then they were counted as not being pure. Humans did not crawl up out of the oceans and even though we have many of the same molecules of other creatures we did not derive from them and they did not derive from us. Today science can create a form of a human being through cloning and some would call this evolution, that we have evolved into a more pure condition but they are ignorant of reality. Science can play God, but they are not God. Just as if I could make an android and give it a human name like George, George is still not a human. The difference in these two creations of science and a real human being is that science can not create ‘a Soul’. It is the Soul that makes the conscientiousness that makes one human and only God can create the Soul. Is there such a thing as evolution, of course there is, just not to the extent that some scientist believe and or are trying to find or create.

 

Science has some things wrong, yet they do have many things correct. Churches have many things correct, yet they have many things wrong. It is the job of the Churches to teach the whole Truth but first the Churches must open their eyes to what the Scriptures actually say and to forget about ‘Church doctrines’. The Earth is a special place for it is designated to be “God’s Footstool”. Earth is where Jesus will reign from once the New Jerusalem comes down from Heaven to replace the current city of Jerusalem once it has been totally destroyed after the Second Advent. Now, Christians, wake up to reality about other planets. Do you honestly think that if God is the Creator of all things in the Heavens and on the Earth that He created billions of planets for no purpose or reason at all? To the best of my knowledge I have never seen an alien yet I totally believe that they exist, it would be difficult to honestly believe other wise. Then again there is the issue of, what does an alien actually look like? Personally I have no idea, but I do doubt that they look like humans. Personally I believe in the existence of Angels, I also believe that I have seen and spoken with at least two in my lifetime. I also believe in the existence of Satan and of His Angels, to me, to not believe in both is Biblical ignorance. I personally do not know if I have ever spoken directly with any Demons but I think that there is a very good chance that I have several times. I know that I have experienced being in places and in the presence of a few people where the feeling of pure evil was like a stench in the air, you could feel it, you could almost taste it. Remember, if you spend your life trying to be good and trying your best to be the best follower of Christ that you know how to be, you make yourself a target for the hate of evil ones, humans and otherwise.

Understanding Revelation Chapters 16,17 & 18 (Armageddon, Babylon And The Harlot)

Understanding Revelation Chapters 16,17 & 18 (Armageddon, Babylon And The Harlot)

Like all things that are writings about Scriptural Truths there will be people who are offended and upset about what is written. I am sure that this article today will be one of those events, but I am not here to please humans, I am here to help them to see and to understand. In this article today it will seem to many that I am picking on the Catholic Church, that is not my intention, truth is my intention. Many people do not read the Book of Revelation because they say that they just don’t understand it because the parables are beyond their understanding, unfortunately most of the Christian Religions also fall into this abyss. Unfortunately many Churches do not teach Revelation because what is written does not jive with their Church Doctrine. I am going to start this article at Revelation chapter 16, verse 14. When the end times of this system of things that we all live in today there are seven Vials in Heaven that will be poured upon the Earth by Angels of God. Where I am beginning is after the Sixth Vial has been poured. This is a time when all the Nations of the Earth gather their Armies together to fight against God/Jesus and His Angels at the Second Advent of Christ. This is when the world will see that they have been deceived by the three ‘would be’ Gods who are actually three Devils. The sad part is that these people will be the ones who have the Mark of the Beast/Devil (your government given number) in their foreheads or implanted in their forearm/wrist and it will be too late for them.

 

16:14 “For they are the Spirits of Devils working miracles who go forth to the Kings of the Earth and to the whole world to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” 16:16 “And He (the Devil) gathered them together to a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.” 16:17 “And the seventh Angel poured out his vial into the air: and there came a great voice out of the Temple of Heaven, from the Throne, saying, It is done.” 18 “And there was thunder and voices and lightning; and there was a great earthquake such as has not been since men have been upon the Earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.” 19″And the great city (Jerusalem) was divided into three parts (Jewish, Islamic, Christian), and the cities of the Nations fell: and great Babylon (Rome/Vatican) came into remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.” 20 “And every island fled away (disappeared) and the mountains were not found (flattened).” 21 “And there fell upon men a great hail out of Heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent (7.5 lbs): and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.”

 

For the purpose of not making this article into a book itself I am going to hit the ‘high points’ of chapters 17 and 18. These high points are designed to help you understand these two chapters if you decide to read them for yourself which I sincerely hope you will.

 

In 17; it speaks of the ‘Great Whore’ that sits upon many waters: with whom the Kings of the Earth have committed fornication and the inhabitants of the Earth have been made drunk with the wine of Her fornication. (This Great Whore is the Catholic Church/the Vatican). You see when Christ returns He is coming for ‘His Bride, The Church’. The Catholic Church throughout its history has called itself ‘The Church’ and at one time it was but it started committing adultery with the kingdoms of the Earth, it did not keep itself clean/pure. The reach of the ‘spoiled Bride’ reaches to all the continents and all its Kingdoms. ‘The Church’ is not pure, it has committed mass adultery with the Kingdoms of the world of which Satan rules thus they have been in league with evil for at least 1600-1700 years, thus the Catholic Church is ‘the Great Whore’ spoken of here in Revelation. Starting in verse 3 the Apostle John speaks of the Woman (the Catholic Church/ the Vatican) sitting upon a scarlet colored Beast (Devil). “And upon her forehead was a name written, “MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” “And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the Saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus:”

 

Chapter 18 starting with verse 2 the Apostle John speaks of another Angel that came down from Heaven who spoke with a mighty voice saying “Babylon the great is fallen and has become the habitation of Devils and the dwelling place of every foul Spirit,” 3: “For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of Her fornication, and the Kings of the Earth have committed fornication with Her and the merchants of the Earth are become rich through the power of Her delicacies.” 8: “Therefore shall Her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning and famine; and She shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judges Her.”

 

I will end this article today with this last little bit from the last few verses of chapter 18 starting with verse 20. “Rejoice over Her, thou Heaven, and ye Holy Apostles and Prophets (preachers); for God has avenged you on Her.” “And a mighty Angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, This with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.” 23: “…; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.” Then lastly verse 24: “And in Her was found the blood of Prophets, and of Saints, and of all that were slain upon the Earth.”

I hope that this article helped to clarify a few things for you. I am not trying to be hateful or mean toward anyone, I am only trying to be totally truthful with you. My hope is that through this article some of you will take the time to read these passages and hopefully understand them a little more. I pray that God will bless each and every one of you, good night.

Two Truths About Noah’s Ark And The Great Flood That You Don’t Hear In Church

Two Truths About Noah’s Ark And The Great Flood That You Don’t Hear In Church

Most all people who live in a Christian, Jewish or Islamic Nation know at least a little bit about the story found in the book of Genesis (first book in the Bible) of Noah’s Ark and the Great Flood. I wish you to refresh yourself on the Bibles teaching on this man and the events that formed during his life, you can find the information in chapters 5 through 9. The material that I am going to bring to your attention is done so for the reason of getting people to think for themselves, to get beyond what is taught in most Churches as ‘Biblical truth’.

 

As you are probably well aware of there are issues with events in the Bible, especially in the book of Genesis that science does not agree with. The reason that this is so is because so many churches teach that which they do not know. When they do these things they are running off many millions of people from ever even trying to learn God’s words. Just as churches do not seem to know that in the first two chapters of Genesis God makes it very plain that there were two creations, not one. If you will open your eyes when you read it is made very plain to us. In the first chapter on the Sixth Day God created men and women, these were the Gentiles (all of our blood lines). Then He rested on the Seventh Day from all His work that He had done. Then in chapter two after the Seven Days were complete God created Adam then Eve. After Cain (Adam and Eve’s son) had killed his brother Able and God cast Cain out but in doing so Cain was worried about all the other people who would find him. Question is, what other people? So God put a mark upon Cain’s’ forehead so that “all that found him” would not kill him, folks, all who? Then Cain found him a wife as he journeyed in the land of Nod which was east of Eden. Where did this wife come from? The story of Adam and Eve and the Garden of Eden happened about 5,500 years ago. Most all logical people know that humans have been on the earth for at least a couple of hundred thousands of years. The Bible does not disagree with science on these issues, it’s just that most Christians, Jews, and Islamic people don’t understand what is right before their own eyes in the Bible. Man kind just started being ’tillers of the ground’ about 5,500 years ago, changing from just being hunter gatherers. We are all told in Scriptures several times in the New and Old Testaments that ‘God’s days are not the same as our days and that “God’s time is not our time” yet we humans keep trying to pigeonhole God into our time which is Scriptural ignorance. Think about this for a moment please, every single planet in our own solar system has a different amount of time that constitutes what one of their ‘days’ are.  Adam and Eve were the first of the “Royal Bloodline”, the Hebrew bloodline, which God created after He had rested from His six days of Creation and after His seventh day of rest.

 

Throughout both Testaments  the terms “all the earth”, “all the land” and “all the people” are referred to many times even though it is plain that they are referring to all the land as in “all of Israel” or “all of that region”. Just as God used the winds to open up the Red Sea for the passage of Moses and the people of Israel to escape the Egyptian army. For the story of Noah God opened up the Earths waters to go along with the heavy rains from the heavens for 40 days and nights to drown all the people and things of that region. Noah’s Ark was a huge ship for the day and it was three levels high but it was no where close to big enough to put in seven of all clean animals and two each of all unclean animals that exist today from all over the Earth! Just as there are animals that existed in the ‘Fertile Crescent’ that did not all live in other continents and vise versa. God the Father and His son Jesus have told us several times that He does not want us humans to be ignorant yet we keep on acting as though we are. Just as the current day state of Israel is only a small sliver of the land that God says belongs to Israel, Gods flood was designed to kill off the Royal Bloodline He had created, except for the people who were in that Ark. After the waters had subsided the Royal Bloodline was refurbished through the bloodline of Noah. All the people’s on all the continents did not start from just 8 people from 4,000 or so odd years ago. Also regarding God, the winds and the waters we are told that God used the winds to help push the waters back into their normal dwelling places, just as he did with the Red Sea.

 

These are no great mysteries that I myself have been given the enlighten too. The information is there for all to see and read if they so choose to do so. I did not give you the exact verses of these passages because I want you to spend a few moments and read them for yourself. Just as the ignorance of some churches who teach such stupidity as the dinosaurs lived and died on ‘day 3’ of the creation story their ignorance of what the Bible actually says has kept untold hundreds of millions if not a few billion people from hearing the actual ‘Word of God’ and being saved! Science and the Scriptures simply back each other up in most cases, it is just that the people who should know the teachings within the Bible, do not, they have been blinded by ‘Church Doctrines’ which are only the Doctrines and commandments of men.