Mysterious Giant “Bubbles” Discovered at Center of Milky Way

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF SCIENCE TECH DAILY)

 

Mysterious Giant “Bubbles” Discovered at Center of Milky Way [Video]

Radio Image of the Central Portions of the Milky Way Galaxy

International team detected radio bubbles with South Africa’s MeerKAT telescope.

A gigantic, balloon-like structure has been hiding in plain sight, right in the center of our own galaxy.

An international team of astronomers, including Northwestern’s Farhad Yusef-Zadeh, discovered the structure, which is one of the largest ever observed in the Milky Way’s center. The newly spotted pair of radio-emitting bubbles reach hundreds of light-years tall, dwarfing all other structures in the central region of the galaxy.

The team believes the enormous, hourglass-shaped structure likely is the result of a phenomenally energetic burst that erupted near the Milky Way’s super massive black hole several million years ago.

“The center of our galaxy is relatively calm when compared to other galaxies with very active central black holes,” said Ian Heywood of the University of Oxford, first author of study. “Even so, the Milky Way’s central black hole can — from time to time — become uncharacteristically active, flaring up as it periodically devours massive clumps of dust and gas. It’s possible that one such feeding frenzy triggered powerful outbursts that inflated this previously unseen feature.”

Using MeerKAT

Why couldn’t we see such a massive figure before? We simply did not have the technology. Until now, the enormous bubbles were hidden by extremely bright radio emissions from the center of the galaxy. For this work, the team used the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) MeerKAT telescope, the largest science project in Africa. The radio light seen by MeerKAT can easily penetrate the dense clouds of dust that block visible light from the center of the galaxy.

This is the first paper detailing research completed with MeerKAT’s full 64-dish array since its launch in July 2018.

South African MeerKAT Radio Telescope

More turbulent and unusually active compared to rest of the Milky Way, the environment surrounding our galaxy’s central black hole holds many mysteries. Northwestern’s Yusef-Zadeh, a senior author of the paper, has dedicated his career to studying the physical processes that occur in the Milky Way’s mystifying center.

In the early 1980s, Yusef-Zadeh discovered large-scale, highly organized magnetic filaments in the center of the Milky Way, 25,000 light-years from Earth. While their origin has remained an unsolved mystery ever since, the filaments are radio structures stretching tens of light-years long and one light-year wide.

“The radio bubbles discovered with MeerKAT now shed light on the origin of the filaments,” Yusef-Zadeh said. “Almost all of the more than 100 filaments are confined by the radio bubbles.”

Researchers believe the close association of the filaments with the bubbles implies that the energetic event that created the radio bubbles also is responsible for accelerating the electrons required to produce the radio emission from the magnetized filaments.

The team of astronomers on this project represents 15 institutions, including Northwestern, Oxford, the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory in Cape Town and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Virginia.

The research paper appears in the journal Nature.

For more on this discovery, read Staggeringly Powerful Event Occurred Near Center of the Milky Way.

Reference: “Inflation of 430-parsec bipolar radio bubbles in the Galactic Centre by an energetic event” by I. Heywood, F. Camilo, W. D. Cotton, F. Yusef-Zadeh, T. D. Abbott, R. M. Adam, M. A. Aldera, E. F. Bauermeister, R. S. Booth, A. G. Botha, D. H. Botha, L. R. S. Brederode, Z. B. Brits, S. J. Buchner, J. P. Burger, J. M. Chalmers, T. Cheetham, D. de Villiers, M. A. Dikgale-Mahlakoana, L. J. du Toit, S. W. P. Esterhuyse, B. L. Fanaroff, A. R. Foley, D. J. Fourie, R. R. G. Gamatham, S. Goedhart, S. Gounden, M. J. Hlakola, C. J. Hoek, A. Hokwana, D. M. Horn, J. M. G. Horrell, B. Hugo, A. R. Isaacson, J. L. Jonas, J. D. B. L. Jordaan, A. F. Joubert, G. I. G. Józsa, R. P. M. Julie, F. B. Kapp, J. S. Kenyon, P. P. A. Kotzé, H. Kriel, T. W. Kusel, R. Lehmensiek, D. Liebenberg, A. Loots, R. T. Lord, B. M. Lunsky, P. S. Macfarlane, L. G. Magnus, C. M. Magozore, O. Mahgoub, J. P. L. Main, J. A. Malan, R. D. Malgas, J. R. Manley, M. D. J. Maree, B. Merry, R. Millenaar, N. Mnyandu, I. P. T. Moeng, T. E. Monama, M. C. Mphego, W. S. New, B. Ngcebetsha, N. Oozeer, A. J. Otto, S. S. Passmoor, A. A. Patel, A. Peens-Hough, S. J. Perkins, S. M. Ratcliffe, R. Renil, A. Rust, S. Salie, L. C. Schwardt, M. Serylak, R. Siebrits, S. K. Sirothia, O. M. Smirnov, L. Sofeya, P. S. Swart, C. Tasse, D. T. Taylor, I. P. Theron, K. Thorat, A. J. Tiplady, S. Tshongweni, T. J. van Balla, A. van der Byl, C. van der Merwe, C. L. van Dyk, R. Van Rooyen, V. Van Tonder, R. Van Wyk, B. H. Wallace, M. G. Welz and L. P. Williams, 11 September 2019, Nature.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1532-5

Where Do Black Holes Lead?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF LIVE SCIENCE)

 

Where Do Black Holes Lead?

Artist's impression of a black hole.

Where does a black hole go?
(Image: © All About Space magazine)

So there you are, about to leap into a black hole. What could possibly await should — against all odds — you somehow survive? Where would you end up and what tantalizing tales would you be able to regale if you managed to clamor your way back?

The simple answer to all of these questions is, as Professor Richard Massey explains, “Who knows?” As a Royal Society research fellow at the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University, Massey is fully aware that the mysteries of black holes run deep. “Falling through an event horizon is literally passing beyond the veil — once someone falls past it, nobody could ever send a message back,” he said. “They’d be ripped to pieces by the enormous gravity, so I doubt anyone falling through would get anywhere.”

If that sounds like a disappointing — and painful — answer, then it is to be expected. Ever since Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity was considered to have predicted black holes by linking space-time with the action of gravity, it has been known that black holes result from the death of a massive star leaving behind a small, dense remnant core. Assuming this core has more than roughly three-times the mass of the sun, gravity would overwhelm to such a degree that it would fall in on itself into a single point, or singularity, understood to be the black hole’s infinitely dense core.

Related: 9 Ideas About Black Holes That Will Blow Your Mind

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The resulting uninhabitable black hole would have such a powerful gravitational pull that not even light could avoid it. So, should you then find yourself at the event horizon — the point at which light and matter can only pass inward, as proposed by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild — there is no escape. According to Massey, tidal forces would reduce your body into strands of atoms (or ‘spaghettification’, as it is also known) and the object would eventually end up crushed at the singularity. The idea that you could pop out somewhere — perhaps at the other side — seems utterly fantastical.

What about a wormhole?

Or is it? Over the years scientists have looked into the possibility that black holes could be wormholes to other galaxies. They may even be, as some have suggested, a path to another universe.

Such an idea has been floating around for some time: Einstein teamed up with Nathan Rosen to theorize bridges that connect two different points in space-time in 1935. But it gained some fresh ground in the 1980’s when physicist Kip Thorne — one of the world’s leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity — raised a discussion about whether objects could physically travel through them.

“Reading Kip Thorne’s popular book about wormholes is what first got me excited about physics as a child,” Massey said. But it doesn’t seem likely that wormholes exist.

Indeed, Thorne, who lent his expert advice to the production team for the Hollywood movie Interstellar, wrote: “We see no objects in our universe that could become wormholes as they age,” in his book “The Science of Interstellar” (W.W. Norton and Company, 2014). Thorne told Space.com that journeys through these theoretical tunnels would most likely remain science fiction, and there is certainly no firm evidence that a black hole could allow for such a passage.

Artist’s concept of a wormhole. If wormholes exist, they might lead to another universe. But, there’s no evidence that wormholes are real or that a black hole would act like one.

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

But, the problem is that we can’t get up close to see for ourselves. Why, we can’t even take photographs of anything that takes place inside a black hole — if light cannot escape their immense gravity, then nothing can be snapped by a camera. As it stands, theory suggests that anything which goes beyond the event horizon is simply added to the black hole and, what’s more, because time distorts close to this boundary, this will appear to take place incredibly slowly, so answers won’t be quickly forthcoming.

“I think the standard story is that they lead to the end of time,” said Douglas Finkbeiner, professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University. “An observer far away will not see their astronaut friend fall into the black hole. They’ll just get redder and fainter as they approach the event horizon [as a result of gravitational red shift]. But the friend falls right in, to a place beyond ‘forever.’ Whatever that means.”

Maybe a black hole leads to a white hole

Certainly, if black holes do lead to another part of a galaxy or another universe, there would need to be something opposite to them on the other side. Could this be a white hole — a theory put forward by Russian cosmologist Igor Novikov in 1964? Novikov proposed that a black hole links to a white hole that exists in the past. Unlike a black hole, a white hole will allow light and matter to leave, but light and matter will not be able to enter.

Scientists have continued to explore the potential connection between black and white holes. In their 2014 study published in the journal Physical Review D, physicists Carlo Rovelli and Hal M. Haggard claimed that “there is a classic metric satisfying the Einstein equations outside a finite space-time region where matter collapses into a black hole and then emerges from a while hole.” In other words, all of the material black holes have swallowed could be spewed out, and black holes may become white holes when they die.

Far from destroying the information that it absorbs, the collapse of a black hole would be halted. It would instead experience a quantum bounce, allowing information to escape. Should this be the case, it would shed some light on a proposal by former Cambridge University cosmologist and theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking who, in the 1970’s, explored the possibility that black holes emit particles and radiation — thermal heat — as a result of quantum fluctuations.

Red shifting Star Orbiting Super massive Black Hole Demonstrates Einstein Prediction
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“Hawking said a black hole doesn’t last forever,” Finkbeiner said. Hawking calculated that the radiation would cause a black hole to lose energy, shrink and disappear, as described in his 1976 paper published in Physical Review D. Given his claims that the radiation emitted would be random and contain no information about what had fallen in, the black hole, upon its explosion, would erase loads of information.

This meant Hawking’s idea was at odds with quantum theory, which says information can’t be destroyed. Physics states information just becomes more difficult to find because, should it become lost, it becomes impossible to know the past or the future. Hawking’s idea led to the ‘black hole information paradox’ and it has long puzzled scientists. Some have said Hawking was simply wrong, and the man himself even declared he had made an error during a scientific conference in Dublin in 2004.

So, do we go back to the concept of black holes emitting preserved information and throwing it back out via a white hole? Maybe. In their 2013 study published in Physical Review Letters, Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University and Rodolfo Gambini at the University of the Republic in Montevideo, Uruguay, applied loop quantum gravity to a black hole and found that gravity increased towards the core but reduced and plonked whatever was entering into another region of the universe. The results gave extra credence to the idea of black holes serving as a portal. In this study, singularity does not exist, and so it doesn’t form an impenetrable barrier that ends up crushing whatever it encounters. It also means that information doesn’t disappear.

Maybe black holes go nowhere

Yet physicists Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski and James Sully still believed Hawking could have been on to something. They worked on a theory that became known as the AMPS firewall, or the black hole firewall hypothesis. By their calculations, quantum mechanics could feasibly turn the event horizon into a giant wall of fire and anything coming into contact would burn in an instant. In that sense, black holes lead nowhere because nothing could ever get inside.

This, however, violates Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Someone crossing the event horizon shouldn’t actually feel any great hardship because an object would be in free fall and, based on the equivalence principle, that object — or person — would not feel the extreme effects of gravity. It could follow the laws of physics present elsewhere in the universe, but even if it didn’t go against Einstein’s principle it would undermine quantum field theory or suggest information can be lost.

Related: 11 Fascinating Facts About Our Milky Way Galaxy

Artist’s impression of a tidal disruption event which occurs when a star passes too close to a super massive black hole.

(Image credit: All About Space magazine)

A black hole of uncertainty

Step forward Hawking once more. In 2014, he published a study in which he eschewed the existence of an event horizon — meaning there is nothing there to burn — saying gravitational collapse would produce an ‘apparent horizon’ instead.

This horizon would suspend light rays trying to move away from the core of the black hole, and would persist for a “period of time.” In his rethinking, apparent horizons temporarily retain matter and energy before dissolving and releasing them later down the line. This explanation best fits with quantum theory — which says information can’t be destroyed — and, if it was ever proven, it suggests that anything could escape from a black hole.

Hawking went as far as saying black holes may not even exist. “Black holes should be redefined as metastable bound states of the gravitational field,” he wrote. There would be no singularity, and while the apparent field would move inwards due to gravity, it would never reach the center and be consolidated within a dense mass.

And yet anything which is emitted will not be in the form of the information swallowed. It would be impossible to figure out what went in by looking at what is coming out, which causes problems of its own — not least for, say, a human who found themselves in such an alarming position. They’d never feel the same again!

One thing’s for sure, this particular mystery is going to swallow up many more scientific hours for a long time to come. Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto recently suggested that a component of dark matter could be formed by remnants of evaporated black holes, and Hawking’s paper on black holes and ‘soft hair’ was released in 2018, and describes how zero-energy particles are left around the point of no return, the event horizon — an idea that suggests information is not lost but captured.

This flew in the face of the no-hair theorem which was expressed by physicist John Archibald Wheeler and worked on the basis that two black holes would be indistinguishable to an observer because none of the special particle physics pseudo-charges would be conserved. It’s an idea that has got scientists talking, but there is some way to go before it’s seen as the answer for where black holes lead. If only we could find a way to leap into one.

“Provocative” –Advanced Life in the Dark Side of Our Universe

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE DAILY GALAXY)

 

“Provocative” –Advanced Life in the Dark Side of Our Universe (Weekend Feature)

 

Dark Matter Life

 

Two of the planet’s leading astrophysicists, Columbia University’s Caleb Scharf and Harvard’s Lisa Randall speculate about the possibility of the dominant dark side of our universe harboring advanced life.

“It’s a thought-provoking idea,” said Scharf, about the possibility that perhaps some advanced life five billion years ago figured out how to activate dark energy via the symmetron field, which is said to pervade space much like the Higgs field, speculates Columbia University’s Caleb Scharf in Nautil.us. Scharf’s speculative conjecture is an idea for the mechanism of an accelerating cosmic expansion called quintessence, a relative of the Higgs field that permeates the cosmos.

One of the great known unknowns of the universe is the nature of dark energy, a force field making the universe expand faster. Current theories range from end-of-the universe scenarios to dark energy as the manifestation of advanced alien life.

On March 2, 2019, The Galaxy posted “Dark Energy –“New Exotic Matter or ET Force Field?” describing a new, controversial theory that suggests that dark energy might be getting stronger and denser, leading to a future in which atoms are torn asunder and time ends.

Dark Matter –“Emerged From an Eon Before the Big Bang”

“Long, long ago, when the universe was only about 100,000 years old — a buzzing, expanding mass of particles and radiation — a strange new energy field switched on,” writes Dennis Overbye for New York Times Science. “That energy suffused space with a kind of cosmic antigravity, delivering a not-so-gentle boost to the expansion of the universe.”

Then, after another 100,000 years or so, the new field simply switched off, leaving no trace other than a sped-up universe says a team of astronomers from Johns Hopkins University led by Adam Riess, a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor and Nobel laureate. In a bold and speculative leap into the past, the team has posited the existence of this field to explain a baffling astronomical puzzle: the universe seems to be expanding faster than it should be.

Dark Energy –“New Exotic Matter or ET Force Field?”

“What we think might be the effects of mysterious forces such as dark energy and dark matter in the Universe, could actually be the influence of alien intelligence – or maybe even aliens themselves,” suggests Scharf in “Mind-Bending” –‘Hyper-Advanced ET May Be What We Perceive to Be Physics’ posted on The Galaxy on Mar 1, 2019.

“Mind-Bending” –‘Hyper-Advanced ET May Be What We Perceive to Be Physics’

“If machines continue to grow exponentially in speed and sophistication, they will one day be able to decode the staggering complexity of the living world, from its atoms and molecules all the way up to entire planetary biomes,” continues Scharf, author of The Copernicus Complex: Our Cosmic Significance in a Universe of Planets and Probabilities, in Nautil.us. “Presumably life doesn’t have to be made of atoms and molecules, but could be assembled from any set of building blocks with the requisite complexity. If so, a civilization could then transcribe itself and its entire physical realm into new forms. Indeed, perhaps our universe is one of the new forms into which some other civilization transcribed its world.”

After all, with our universe 13.5 billion years old, the cosmos may hold other life, and if some of that life has evolved beyond ours in terms of complexity and technology, adds Scharf. “We should be considering some very extreme possibilities. Today’s futurists and believers in a machine “singularity” predict that life and its technological baggage might end up so beyond our ken that we wouldn’t even realize we were staring at it. That’s quite a claim, yet it would neatly explain why we have yet to see advanced intelligence in the cosmos around us, despite the sheer number of planets it could have arisen on—the so-called Fermi Paradox.”

“Perhaps hyper-advanced life isn’t just external. Perhaps it’s already all around. It is embedded in what we perceive to be physics itself, from the root behavior of particles and fields to the phenomena of complexity and emergence,” says Scharf, a research scientist at Columbia University and director of the Columbia Astrobiology Center. “What we think might be the effects of mysterious forces such as dark energy and dark matter in the Universe, could actually be the influence of alien intelligence – or maybe even aliens themselves.”

“Dark Energy’s Known Unknown” — Could It Be the Symmetron Field That Pervades Space Much Like the Higgs Field

Once we start proposing that life could be part of the solution to cosmic mysteries, Scharf concludes, “Although dark-matter life is a pretty exotic idea, it’s still conceivable that we might recognize what it is, even capturing it in our labs one day (or being captured by it). We can take a tumble down a different rabbit hole by considering that we don’t recognize advanced life because it forms an integral and unsuspicious part of what we’ve considered to be the natural world.”

Scharf points out that Arthur C. Clarke suggested that any sufficiently advanced technology is going to be indistinguishable from magic. “If you dropped in on a bunch of Paleolithic farmers with your iPhone and a pair of sneakers,” Scharf says, “you’d undoubtedly seem pretty magical. But the contrast is only middling: The farmers would still recognize you as basically like them, and before long they’d be taking selfies. But what if life has moved so far on that it doesn’t just appear magical, but appears like physics?”

If the universe harbors other life, and if some of that life has evolved beyond our own waypoints of complexity an technology, Scharf proposes that we should be considering some very extreme positions.

Meanwhile up at Harvard, theoretical physicist Lisa Randall, speculates that an invisible civilization could be living right under your nose. In Does Dark Matter Harbor Life she observes that dark matter is the “glue” that holds together galaxies and galaxy clusters, but resides only in amorphous clouds around them. “But what.” asks Randall, “if this assumption isn’t true and it is only our prejudice—and ignorance, which is after all the root of most prejudice—that led us down this potentially misleading path?”

The Standard Model, Randall points out, contains six types of quarks, three types of charged leptons (including the electron), three species of neutrinos, all the particles responsible for forces, as well as the newly discovered Higgs boson. What if the world of dark matter, which matter interacts only negligibly with matter, harbors “a small component of dark matter would interact under forces reminiscent of those in ordinary matter. The rich and complex structure of the Standard Model’s particles and forces gives rise to many of the world’s interesting phenomena. If dark matter has an interacting component, this fraction might be influential too.”

No one had allowed, Randall asserts, for the very simple possibility that although most dark matter doesn’t interact, a small fraction of it might.

Shadow life,” exciting as that would be, won’t necessarily have any visible consequences that we would notice, making it a tantalizing possibility but one immune to observations. In fairness, dark life is a tall order. Science-fiction writers may have no problem creating it, but the universe has a lot more obstacles to overcome. Out of all possible chemistries, it’s very unclear how many could sustain life, and even among those that could, we don’t know the type of environments that would be necessary.

Nonetheless, dark life could in principle be present—even right under our noses. But without stronger interactions with the matter of our world, it can be partying or fighting or active or inert and we would never know. But the interesting thing is that if there are interactions in the dark world—whether or not they are associated with life—the effects on structure might ultimately be measured. And then we will learn a great deal more about the dark world.

Randall suggests that “if we were creatures made of dark matter, we would be very wrong to assume that the particles in our ordinary matter sector were all of the same type. Perhaps we ordinary matter people are making a similar mistake.

“Given the complexity of the Standard Model of particle physics, she observes, which describes the basic components of matter we know of, it seems very odd to assume that all of dark matter is composed of only one type of particle. Why not suppose instead that some fraction of the dark matter experiences its own forces?”

The image at the top of the page shows dark matter filaments bridge the space between galaxies in this false colour map. The locations of bright galaxies are shown by the white regions and the presence of a dark matter filament bridging the galaxies is shown in red. ( S. Epps & M. Hudson / University of Waterloo)

The Daily Galaxy via New YorkerNautil.us and New York Times

Where Do Black Holes Lead?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF LIVE SCIENCE)

 

Where Do Black Holes Lead?

Artist's impression of a black hole.

Where does a black hole go?
(Image: © All About Space magazine)

So there you are, about to leap into a black hole. What could possibly await should — against all odds — you somehow survive? Where would you end up and what tantalizing tales would you be able to regale if you managed to clamor your way back?

The simple answer to all of these questions is, as Professor Richard Massey explains, “Who knows?” As a Royal Society research fellow at the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University, Massey is fully aware that the mysteries of black holes run deep. “Falling through an event horizon is literally passing beyond the veil — once someone falls past it, nobody could ever send a message back,” he said. “They’d be ripped to pieces by the enormous gravity, so I doubt anyone falling through would get anywhere.”

If that sounds like a disappointing — and painful — answer, then it is to be expected. Ever since Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity was considered to have predicted black holes by linking space-time with the action of gravity, it has been known that black holes result from the death of a massive star leaving behind a small, dense remnant core. Assuming this core has more than roughly three-times the mass of the sun, gravity would overwhelm to such a degree that it would fall in on itself into a single point, or singularity, understood to be the black hole’s infinitely dense core.

Related: 9 Ideas About Black Holes That Will Blow Your Mind

CLOSE
Volume 0%

The resulting uninhabitable black hole would have such a powerful gravitational pull that not even light could avoid it. So, should you then find yourself at the event horizon — the point at which light and matter can only pass inward, as proposed by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild — there is no escape. According to Massey, tidal forces would reduce your body into strands of atoms (or ‘spaghettification’, as it is also known) and the object would eventually end up crushed at the singularity. The idea that you could pop out somewhere — perhaps at the other side — seems utterly fantastical.

What about a wormhole?

Or is it? Over the years scientists have looked into the possibility that black holes could be wormholes to other galaxies. They may even be, as some have suggested, a path to another universe.

Such an idea has been floating around for some time: Einstein teamed up with Nathan Rosen to theorise bridges that connect two different points in space-time in 1935. But it gained some fresh ground in the 1980s when physicist Kip Thorne — one of the world’s leading experts on the astrophysical implications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity — raised a discussion about whether objects could physically travel through them.

“Reading Kip Thorne’s popular book about wormholes is what first got me excited about physics as a child,” Massey said. But it doesn’t seem likely that wormholes exist.

Indeed, Thorne, who lent his expert advice to the production team for the Hollywood movie Interstellar, wrote: “We see no objects in our universe that could become wormholes as they age,” in his book “The Science of Interstellar” (W.W. Norton and Company, 2014). Thorne told Space.com that journeys through these theoretical tunnels would most likely remain science fiction, and there is certainly no firm evidence that a black hole could allow for such a passage.

Artist’s concept of a wormhole. If wormholes exist, they might lead to another universe. But, there’s no evidence that wormholes are real or that a black hole would act like one.

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

But, the problem is that we can’t get up close to see for ourselves. Why, we can’t even take photographs of anything that takes place inside a black hole — if light cannot escape their immense gravity, then nothing can be snapped by a camera. As it stands, theory suggests that anything which goes beyond the event horizon is simply added to the black hole and, what’s more, because time distorts close to this boundary, this will appear to take place incredibly slowly, so answers won’t be quickly forthcoming.

“I think the standard story is that they lead to the end of time,” said Douglas Finkbeiner, professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University. “An observer far away will not see their astronaut friend fall into the black hole. They’ll just get redder and fainter as they approach the event horizon [as a result of gravitational red shift]. But the friend falls right in, to a place beyond ‘forever.’ Whatever that means.”

Maybe a black hole leads to a white hole

Certainly, if black holes do lead to another part of a galaxy or another universe, there would need to be something opposite to them on the other side. Could this be a white hole — a theory put forward by Russian cosmologist Igor Novikov in 1964? Novikov proposed that a black hole links to a white hole that exists in the past. Unlike a black hole, a white hole will allow light and matter to leave, but light and matter will not be able to enter.

Scientists have continued to explore the potential connection between black and white holes. In their 2014 study published in the journal Physical Review D, physicists Carlo Rovelli and Hal M. Haggard claimed that “there is a classic metric satisfying the Einstein equations outside a finite space-time region where matter collapses into a black hole and then emerges from a while hole.” In other words, all of the material black holes have swallowed could be spewed out, and black holes may become white holes when they die.

Far from destroying the information that it absorbs, the collapse of a black hole would be halted. It would instead experience a quantum bounce, allowing information to escape. Should this be the case, it would shed some light on a proposal by former Cambridge University cosmologist and theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking who, in the 1970s, explored the possibility that black holes emit particles and radiation — thermal heat — as a result of quantum fluctuations.

Redshifting Star Orbiting Supermassive Black Hole Demonstrates Einstein Prediction
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“Hawking said a black hole doesn’t last forever,” Finkbeiner said. Hawking calculated that the radiation would cause a black hole to lose energy, shrink and disappear, as described in his 1976 paper published in Physical Review D. Given his claims that the radiation emitted would be random and contain no information about what had fallen in, the black hole, upon its explosion, would erase loads of information.

This meant Hawking’s idea was at odds with quantum theory, which says information can’t be destroyed. Physics states information just becomes more difficult to find because, should it become lost, it becomes impossible to know the past or the future. Hawking’s idea led to the ‘black hole information paradox’ and it has long puzzled scientists. Some have said Hawking was simply wrong, and the man himself even declared he had made an error during a scientific conference in Dublin in 2004.

So, do we go back to the concept of black holes emitting preserved information and throwing it back out via a white hole? Maybe. In their 2013 study published in Physical Review Letters, Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University and Rodolfo Gambini at the University of the Republic in Montevideo, Uruguay, applied loop quantum gravity to a black hole and found that gravity increased towards the core but reduced and plonked whatever was entering into another region of the universe. The results gave extra credence to the idea of black holes serving as a portal. In this study, singularity does not exist, and so it doesn’t form an impenetrable barrier that ends up crushing whatever it encounters. It also means that information doesn’t disappear.

Maybe black holes go nowhere

Yet physicists Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski and James Sully still believed Hawking could have been on to something. They worked on a theory that became known as the AMPS firewall, or the black hole firewall hypothesis. By their calculations, quantum mechanics could feasibly turn the event horizon into a giant wall of fire and anything coming into contact would burn in an instant. In that sense, black holes lead nowhere because nothing could ever get inside.

This, however, violates Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Someone crossing the event horizon shouldn’t actually feel any great hardship because an object would be in free fall and, based on the equivalence principle, that object — or person — would not feel the extreme effects of gravity. It could follow the laws of physics present elsewhere in the universe, but even if it didn’t go against Einstein’s principle it would undermine quantum field theory or suggest information can be lost.

Related: 11 Fascinating Facts About Our Milky Way Galaxy

Artist’s impression of a tidal disruption event which occurs when a star passes too close to a supermassive black hole.

(Image credit: All About Space magazine)

A black hole of uncertainty

Step forward Hawking once more. In 2014, he published a study in which he eschewed the existence of an event horizon — meaning there is nothing there to burn — saying gravitational collapse would produce an ‘apparent horizon’ instead.

This horizon would suspend light rays trying to move away from the core of the black hole, and would persist for a “period of time.” In his rethinking, apparent horizons temporarily retain matter and energy before dissolving and releasing them later down the line. This explanation best fits with quantum theory — which says information can’t be destroyed — and, if it was ever proven, it suggests that anything could escape from a black hole.

Hawking went as far as saying black holes may not even exist. “Black holes should be redefined as metastable bound states of the gravitational field,” he wrote. There would be no singularity, and while the apparent field would move inwards due to gravity, it would never reach the center and be consolidated within a dense mass.

And yet anything which is emitted will not be in the form of the information swallowed. It would be impossible to figure out what went in by looking at what is coming out, which causes problems of its own — not least for, say, a human who found themselves in such an alarming position. They’d never feel the same again!

One thing’s for sure, this particular mystery is going to swallow up many more scientific hours for a long time to come. Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto recently suggested that a component of dark matter could be formed by remnants of evaporated black holes, and Hawking’s paper on black holes and ‘soft hair’ was released in 2018, and describes how zero-energy particles are left around the point of no return, the event horizon — an idea that suggests information is not lost but captured.

This flew in the face of the no-hair theorem which was expressed by physicist John Archibald Wheeler and worked on the basis that two black holes would be indistinguishable to an observer because none of the special particle physics pseudo-charges would be conserved. It’s an idea that has got scientists talking, but there is some way to go before it’s seen as the answer for where black holes lead. If only we could find a way to leap into one.

Could Our Universe Be Inside Of A Black Hole?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE UK EXPRESS)

 

Black hole shock: Our universe could be INSIDE a black hole – shock claim

BLACK holes could be a portal to another universe and our cosmos could have been born from one, a scientist has sensationally claimed.

Black holes: Scientist reveals how Earth could be destroyed

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While the accepted theory on the universe began is the big bang, there are other equally baffling theories. One such is that our universe was born from a black hole opening in another parallel universe and that each black hole in our cosmos could be a gateway to another universe. At the beginning of time, 13.8 billion years ago, there was a dense and super-hot energetic point where the laws of physics did not apply – what is known as a singularity.

The only other time in the universe where a singularity occurs and the laws of physics are thrown out of the window is at the event horizon of a black hole, which is unexplainable by current scientific methods.

There are a few ways in which a black hole can form.

Scientists believe the most common instance is when a star, thousands of times the size of our sun, collapses in on itself when it dies – known as a supernova.

Another way is when a large amount of matter, which can be in the form of a gas cloud or a star collapses in on itself through its own gravitational pull.

black hole universe

Black hole shock: Our universe could be INSIDE a black hole – shock claim (Image: GETTY)

black hole

Our universe could have been born from a black hole opening in another parallel universe (Image: GETTY)

Finally, the collision of two neutron stars can cause a black hole.

The gist of all three ways is that a massive amount of mass located in one spot can cause a black hole with it essentially ripping a hole in the fabric of space-time.

This has led some to believe that the Big Bang was actually a black hole opening in another universe, allowing the matter which has spewed through from that portal to create our own portal.

The matter that has been spewing through for 13.8 billion years could also explain why the universe is ever-expanding.

READ MORE: Black hole bombshell: Scientists stunned by ‘freaky’ first

BLACK HOLE

“Every black hole would produce a new, baby universe inside” (Image: GETTY)

Sravanthi Sureshkumar, a physicist from Meenakshi College, India, explained on Q+A site Quora: “Every black hole would produce a new, baby universe inside. If that is true, then the first matter in our universe came from somewhere else.

“Our universe may exist inside a black hole. This may sound strange, but it could actually be the best explanation of how the universe began, and what we observe today.

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BLACK HOLE

What is a black hole? (Image: EXPRESS)

“Just as we cannot see what is going on inside black holes in the cosmos, any observers in the parent universe could not see what is going on in ours.

“The motion of matter through the black hole’s boundary called an ‘event horizon’, would only happen in one direction, providing a direction of time that we perceive as moving forward.”

Physicists Just Released Step-by-Step Instructions for Building a Wormhole

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF LIVE SCIENCE)

 

Physicists Just Released Step-by-Step Instructions for Building a Wormhole

spinning black hole with spacecraft entering

(Image: © Shutterstock)

Everybody wants a wormhole. I mean, who wants to bother traveling the long-and-slow routes throughout the universe, taking tens of thousands of years just to reach yet another boring star? Not when you can pop into the nearest wormhole opening, take a short stroll, and end up in some exotic far-flung corner of the universe.

There’s a small technical difficulty, though: Wormholes, which are bends in space-time so extreme that a shortcut tunnel forms, are catastrophically unstable. As in, as soon as you send a single photon down the hole, it collapses faster than the speed of light.

But a recent paper, published to the preprint journal arXiv on July 29, has found a way to build an almost-steady wormhole, one that does collapse but slowly enough to send messages — and potentially even things — down it before it tears itself apart. All you need are a couple of black holes and a few infinitely long cosmic strings.

Easy-peasy.

The wormhole problem

In principle, building a wormhole is pretty straightforward. According to Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, mass and energy warp the fabric of space-time. And a certain special configuration of matter and energy allows the formation of a tunnel, a shortcut between two otherwise distant portions of the universe.

Related: 8 Ways You Can See Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in Real Life

Unfortunately, even on paper, those wormholes are fantastically unstable. Even a single photon passing through the wormhole triggers a catastrophic cascade that rips the wormhole apart. However, a healthy dose of negative mass — yes, that’s matter but with an opposite weight — can counteract the destabilizing effects of regular matter trying to pass through the wormhole, making it traversable.

OK, matter with negative mass doesn’t exist, so we need a new plan.

Let’s start with the wormhole itself. We need an entrance and an exit. It’s theoretically possible to connect a black hole (a region of space where nothing can escape) to a white hole (a theoretical region of space where nothing can enter). When these two odd creatures join together, they form a brand-new thing: a wormhole. So you can jump into either end of this tunnel and instead of getting crushed into oblivion you just harmlessly waltz out the other side.

Oh, but white holes don’t exist, either. Man, this is getting tricky.

Charge it up

Since white holes don’t exist, we need a new plan. Thankfully, some clever math reveals a possible answer: a charged black hole. Black holes can carry an electric charge (it’s not common because of the way they’re formed naturally, but we’ll take what we can get). The inside of a charged black hole is a strange place, with the normal point-like singularity of a black hole stretched and distorted, allowing it to form a bridge to another oppositely charged black hole.

Voila: a wormhole, using only things that might actually exist.

But this wormhole-via-charged-black-holes has two issues. One, it’s still unstable, and if something or someone actually tries to use it, it falls apart. The other is that the two oppositely charged black holes will be attracted to each other — both through gravitational and electric forces — and if they fall together you just get a single, big, neutrally charged and altogether useless black hole.

wormhole illustration

(Image credit: Shutterstock)

Put a cosmic bow on it

So to make this all work we need to make sure the two charged black holes stay safely far away from each other, and make sure the tunnel of the wormhole can hold itself open. A potential solution: cosmic strings.

Cosmic strings are theoretical defects, similar to the cracks that form when ice freezes, in the fabric of space-time. These cosmic leftovers formed in the early, heady days of the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang. They are truly exotic objects, no wider than a proton but with a single inch of their length outweighing Mount Everest. You never want to encounter one yourself, since they would slice you clean in half like a cosmic lightsaber, but you don’t have to worry much since we’re not even sure they exist, and we’ve never seen one out there in the universe.

Still, there’s no reason they can’t exist, so they’re fair game.

They have another very useful property when it comes to wormholes: enormous tension. In other words, they really don’t like being pushed around. If you thread the wormhole with a cosmic string, and allow the string to pass along the outside edges of the black holes and stretch out of either end all the way to infinity, then the tension in the string prevents the charged black holes from being attracted to each other, holding the two ends of the wormhole far away from each other. Essentially, the distant ends of the cosmic string act like two opposing tug-of-war teams, holding back the black holes.

Calming the tremors

One cosmic string solves one of the problems (holding the ends open), but it doesn’t prevent the wormhole itself from collapsing if you were to actually use it. So, let’s toss in another cosmic string, also threading the wormhole, but also looping it through normal space between the two black holes.

When cosmic strings are closed in a loop, they wiggle — a lot. These vibrations churn the very fabric of space-time around them, and when tuned just right the vibrations can cause the energy of space in their vicinity to go negative, effectively acting like negative mass within the wormhole, potentially stabilizing it.

It seems a little complex, but in the recent paper, a team of theoretical physicists gave step-by-step instructions for constructing just such a wormhole. It’s not a perfect solution: Eventually the inherent vibrations in the cosmic strings — the same ones that might keep the wormhole open — pull energy, and therefore mass, away from the string, making it smaller and smaller. Essentially, over time the cosmic strings wiggle themselves into oblivion, with complete collapse of the wormhole not far behind. But the kludged-together wormhole may stay stable long enough to allow messages or even objects to travel down the tunnel and actually not die, which is nice.

But first we need to find some cosmic strings.

Paul M. Sutter is an astrophysicist at The Ohio State University, host of Ask a Spaceman and Space Radio, and author of Your Place in the Universe.

Originally published on Live Science.

Our Galaxy’s Supermassive Black Hole Has Emitted a Mysteriously Bright Flare

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF SCIENCE ALERT)

 

Our Galaxy’s Supermassive Black Hole Has Emitted a Mysteriously Bright Flare

MICHELLE STARR
12 AUG 2019

The supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A*, is relatively quiet. It’s not an active nucleus, spewing light and heat into the space around it; most of the time, the black hole’s activity is low key, with minimal fluctuations in its brightness.

Most of the time. Recently, astronomers caught it going absolutely bananas, suddenly growing 75 times brighter before subsiding back to normal levels. That’s the brightest we’ve ever seen Sgr A* in near-infrared wavelengths.

“I was pretty surprised at first and then very excited,” astronomer Tuan Do of the University of California Los Angeles told ScienceAlert.

“The black hole was so bright I at first mistook it for the star S0-2, because I had never seen Sgr A* that bright. Over the next few frames, though, it was clear the source was variable and had to be the black hole. I knew almost right away there was probably something interesting going on with the black hole.”

But what? That’s what astronomers are on a mission to find out. Their findings so far are currently in press with The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Do and his team took observations of the galactic center galaxy

using the WM Keck Observatory in Hawaii over four nights earlier this year. The strange brightening was observed on May 13, and the team managed to capture it in a time lapse, two hours condensed down to a few seconds.

Tuan Do@quantumpenguin

Here’s a timelapse of images over 2.5 hr from May from @keckobservatory of the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The black hole is always variable, but this was the brightest we’ve seen in the infrared so far. It was probably even brighter before we started observing that night!

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That brightly glowing dot right at the beginning of the video is the dust and gas swirling around Sgr A*. Black holes themselves don’t emit any radiationthat can be detected by our current instruments, but the stuff nearby doeswhen the black hole’s gravitational forces generate immense friction, in turn producing radiation.

When we view that radiation with a telescope using the infrared range, it translates as brightness. Normally, the brightness of Sgr A* flickers a bit like a candle, varying from minutes to hours. But when the surroundings of a black hole flare that brightly, it’s a sign something may have gotten close enough to be grabbed by its gravity.

The first frame – taken right at the beginning of the observation – is the brightest, which means Sgr A* could have been even brighter before they started observing, Do said. But no one was aware that anything was drawing close enough to be swallowed by the black hole.

The team is busily gathering data to try and narrow it down, but there are two immediate possibilities. One is G2, an object thought to be a gas cloud that approached within 36 light-hours of Sgr A* in 2014. If it was a gas cloud, this proximity should have torn it to shreds, and parts of it devoured by the black hole – yet nothing happened.

The flyby was later called a “cosmic fizzle“, but the researchers believe the black hole’s May fireworks show may have been a delayed reaction.

sgr a s02(Do et al., arXiv, 2019)

But – have a look at the timelapse again. See that bright dot at around 11 o’clock from the black hole? That’s S0-2, a star on a long, looping, 16-year elliptical orbit around Sgr A*. Last year, it made its closest approach, coming within 17 light-hours of the black hole.

“One of the possibilities,” Do told ScienceAlert, “is that the star S0-2, when it passed close to the black hole last year, changed the way gas flows into the black hole, and so more gas is falling on it, leading it to become more variable.”

The only way to find out is having more data. They are currently being collected, across a larger range of wavelengths. More observations will take place over the coming weeks with the ground-based Keck Observatory before the galactic centre is no longer visible at night from Earth.

But many other telescopes – including Spitzer, Chandra, Swift and ALMA – were observing the galactic centre over the last few months, too. Their data could reveal different aspects of the physics of the change in brightness, and help us understand what Sgr A* is up to.

“I’m eagerly awaiting their results,” Do said.

The paper has been accepted into The Astrophysical Journal Letters, and is available on arXiv.

“Gargantua” –The Black Hole That Could Swallow Our Solar System

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE GALAXY NEWS)

 

“Gargantua” –The Black Hole That Could Swallow Our Solar System

 

M87 Galaxy

 

This past April, with an event that was as epic as the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon, the world viewed its first image of what had once been purely theoretical, a black hole at the heart of galaxy M87 the size of our solar system, and bigger, with the mass of six and a half billion suns that was captured by a lens the size of planet Earth and 4,000 times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope.

Astronomers have theorized that the galaxy that harbors the black hole grew to its massive size by merging with several other black holes in elliptical galaxy M87, the largest, most massive galaxy in the nearby universe thought to have been formed by the merging of 100 or so smaller galaxies. The M87 black hole’s large size and relative proximity, led astronomers to think that it could be the first black hole that they could actually “see.”

The black hole that that we can now actually see is frozen in time it was 55 million years ago, because it’s so far away the light took that long to reach us. “Over those eons, we emerged on Earth along with our myths, differentiated cultures, ideologies, languages and varied beliefs,” says astrophysicist Janna Levin with Columbia University.

“The Gates of Hell, The End of Spacetime” –World’s Scientists Speak Out On EHT’s Black Hole Picture

The Event Horizon Telescope that imaged the black hole is actually 10 telescopes, linked across four continents in the United States, Mexico, Chile, Spain, and Antarctica, and designed to scan the cosmos in radio waves. For a few days in April 2017, the observatories studied the skies in tandem, creating a gargantuan telescope nearly the size of the planet.

“A medium-sized galaxy fell through the center of M87, and as a consequence of the enormous gravitational tidal forces, its stars are now scattered over a region that is 100 times larger than the original galaxy!” said Ortwin Gerhard, head of the dynamics group at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics.  Observations July 2018 with ESO’s Very Large Telescope revealed that the giant elliptical galaxy swallowed the entire medium-sized galaxy over the last billion years.

“What Sparked the Big Bang?” –The Black Hole at the Beginning of the Universe

M87, imaged above by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, is home to the supermassive black hole that spews two jets of material out into space at nearly the speed of light. The inset shows a close-up view of the shockwaves created by the two jets. This image from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope shows the entire M87 galaxy in infrared light.

Located about 55 million light-years from Earth, M87 has been a subject of astronomical study for more than 100 years and has been imaged by many NASA observatories, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and NuSTAR.

“Worlds in Collision” –Dangers of Milky Way’s ‘Reawakened’ Supermassive Black Hole

In 1918, astronomer Heber Curtis first noticed “a curious straight ray” extending from the galaxy’s center. This bright jet of high-energy material, produced by a disk of material spinning rapidly around the black hole, is visible in multiple wavelengths of light, from radio waves through X-rays. When the particles in the jet impact the interstellar medium (the sparse material filling the space between stars in M87), they create a shockwave that radiates in infrared and radio wavelengths of light but not visible light. In the Spitzer image, the shockwave is more prominent than the jet itself.

 

 

This zoom video above starts with a view of the ALMA telescope array in Chile and zooms in on the heart of M87, showing successively more detailed observations and culminating in the first direct visual evidence of a supermassive black hole’s silhouette. (ESO/L. Calçada, Digitized Sky Survey 2, ESA/Hubble, RadioAstron, De Gasperin et al., Kim et al., EHT Collaboration).

 

M87 Black Hole

 

On the right is the first-ever image of the black hole at the heart of galaxy M87, taken by the Event Horizon Telescope. The NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory’s wide-field view of the M87 galaxy (left) reveals the jet of high-energy particles launched by the intense gravitational and magnetic fields around the black hole. Credit: X-ray (left): NASA/CXC/Villanova University/J. Neilsen; Radio (right): Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration.

Harvard history of science professor Peter L. Galison, a collaborator on Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), said that scientists proposed theoretical arguments for black holes as early as 1916. It was not until the 1970s, however, that researchers substantiated the theory by observing extremely dense areas of matter. Scientists announced in 2016 that, for the first time, they had detected gravitational waves — which many argued were produced by black holes merging, and therefore were evidence that black holes exist.

The image marked the culmination of years of work undertaken by a team of 200 scientists in 59 institutes across 18 countries. The project, to which other scientists at Harvard’s Black Hole Institute also contributed, drew on data collected by eight telescopes whose locations range from Hawaii to the South Pole.

“A Fractured Cosmos?” –Unknown Object Detected at Milky Way’s Black Hole

In contrast to M87’s monster, 1,500 times more massive than the Milky Way’s central black hole, Sag A* has four million times the mass of our sun, which means that it’s about 44 million kilometers across. That may sound like a big target, but for the telescope array on Earth some 26,000 light-years (or 245 trillion kilometers) away, it’s like trying to photograph a golf ball on the Moon.

“The Last Photon Orbit” –Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole ‘On Deck’ for the EHT

“More than 50 years ago, scientists saw that there was something very bright at the center of our galaxy,” Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and an expert on black holes, AFP’s Marlowe Hood. It has a gravitational pull strong enough to make stars orbit around it very quickly—as fast as 20 years, compared to our Solar System’s journey, which takes about 230 million years to circle the center of the Milky Way.

“We are sitting in the plain of our galaxy—you have to look through all the stars and dust to get to the center,” said McNamara.

The Daily Galaxy via EHTThe GuardianThe AtlanticNew York Times

Astrophysicists announce discovery that could rewrite story of how galaxies die

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF PHYSICS.ORG)

 

Astrophysicists announce discovery that could rewrite story of how galaxies die

Astrophysicist announces her discovery that could rewrite story of how galaxies die
This artist conception depicts an energetic quasar which has cleared the center of the galaxy of gas and dust, and these winds are now propagating to the outskirts. Soon, there will be no gas and dust left, and only a luminous blue quasar will remain. Credit: Michelle Vigeant

At the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society in St. Louis, Missouri, Allison Kirkpatrick, assistant professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Kansas, will announce her discovery of “cold quasars”—galaxies featuring an abundance of cold gas that still can produce new stars despite having a quasar at the center—a breakthrough finding that overturns assumptions about the maturation of galaxies and may represent a phase of every galaxy’s lifecycle that was unknown until now.

Her news briefing, entitled “A New Population of Cold Quasars,” takes place Wednesday, June 12, on the 2nd floor of the St. Louis Union Station Hotel.

A quasar, or “quasi-stellar radio source,” is essentially a  on steroids. Gas falling toward a quasar at the center of a galaxy forms an “accretion disk” which can cast off a mind-boggling amount of electromagnetic energy, often featuring luminosity hundreds of times greater than a typical galaxy. Typically, formation of a quasar is akin to galactic retirement, and it’s long been thought to signal an end to a galaxy’s ability to produce .

“All the gas that is accreting on the black hole is being heated and giving off X-rays,” Kirkpatrick said. “The wavelength of light that you give off directly corresponds to how hot you are. For example, you and I give off infrared light. But something that’s giving off X-rays is one of the hottest things in the universe. This gas starts accreting onto the black hole and starts moving at relativistic speeds; you also have a magnetic field around this gas, and it can get twisted up. In the same way that you get solar flares, you can have jets of material go up through these magnetic field lines and be shot away from the black hole. These jets essentially choke off the gas supply of the galaxy, so no more gas can fall on to the galaxy and form new stars. After a galaxy has stopped forming stars, we say it’s a passive dead galaxy.”

But in Kirkpatrick’s survey, about 10 percent of  hosting accreting supermassive  had a supply of cold gas remaining after entering this phase, and still made new .

Astrophysicist announces her discovery that could rewrite story of how galaxies die
An optical blue quasar at a lookback time of 7 billion years (this is not a nearby galaxy). Normally, something like this would not have infrared emission. Credit: Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey DR7/NOAO

“That in itself is surprising,” she said. “This whole population is a whole bunch of different objects. Some of the galaxies have very obvious merger signatures; some of them look a lot like the Milky Way and have very obvious spiral arms. Some of them are very compact. From this diverse population, we then have a further 10 percent that is really unique and unexpected. These are very compact, blue, luminous sources. They look exactly like you would expect a supermassive black hole to look in the end stages after it has quenched all of the star formation in a galaxy. This is evolving into a passive elliptical galaxy, yet we have found a lot of cold gas in these as well. These are the population that I’m calling ‘cold quasars.'”

The KU astrophysicist suspected the “cold quasars” in her survey represented a brief period yet to be recognized in the end-phases of a galaxy’s lifespan—in terms of a human life, the fleeting “cold quasar” phase may something akin to a galaxy’s retirement party.

“These galaxies are rare because they’re in a transition phase—we’ve caught them right before star formation in the galaxy is quenched and this transition period should be very short,” she said.

Kirkpatrick first identified the objects of interest in an area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the most detailed digital map of the universe available. In an area dubbed “Stripe 82,” Kirkpatrick and her colleagues were able to visually identify quasars.

“Then we went over this area with the XMM Newton telescope and surveyed it in the X-ray,” she said. “X-rays are the key signature of growing black holes. From there, we surveyed it with the Herschel Space Telescope, a far infrared telescope, which can detect dust and gas in the host galaxy. We selected the galaxies that we could find in both the X-ray and in the infrared.”

Astrophysicist announces her discovery that could rewrite story of how galaxies die
The dust emission of the same blue-quasar galaxy. It is surprisingly bright — in fact, it’s one of the brightest objects in the field, indicating a lot of dust. Due to the resolution of the telescope, we cannot see what that dust actually looks like. Credit: Herschel/ESA

The KU researcher said her findings give scientists new understanding and detail of how the quenching of star formation in galaxies proceeds, and overturns presumptions about quasars.

“We already knew quasars go through a dust-obscured phase,” Kirkpatrick said. “We knew they go through a heavily shrouded phase where dust is surrounding the supermassive black hole. We call that the red quasar phase. But now, we’ve found this unique transition regime that we didn’t know before. Before, if you told someone you had found a luminous quasar that had a blue optical color—but it still had a lot of dust and gas in it, and a lot of star formation—people would say, ‘No, that’s not the way these things should look.'”

Next, Kirkpatrick hopes to determine if the “cold quasar” phase happens to a specific class of galaxies or every galaxy.

“We thought the way these things proceed was you have a growing black hole, it’s enshrouded by dust and gas, it begins to blow that material out,” she said. “Then it becomes a luminous blue object. We assumed when it blew out its own gas, it would blow out its host gas as well. But it seems with these objects, that’s not the case. These have blown out their own dust—so we see it as a blue object—but they haven’t yet blown out all of the dust and gas in the host galaxies. This is a transition phase, let’s say of 10 million years. In universal timescales, that’s really short—and it’s hard to catch this thing. We’re doing what we call a blind survey to find objects we weren’t looking for. And by finding these objects, yes, it could imply that this happens to every galaxy.”

Black hole BOMBSHELL: NASA astronomer hints universe could be a HOLOGRAM

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE UK EXPRESS NEWS)

 

Black hole BOMBSHELL: NASA astronomer hints universe could be a HOLOGRAM

BLACK holes could hold all of the secrets of the universe and prove once and for all we live in a “giant hologram”, a NASA astronomer has spectacularly claimed.

NASA claim that WATER is present on the moon’s surface

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Black holes are incredible wells of gravity, where the force of attraction traps everything including light. Black holes are often found at the hearts of galaxies and up until April this year have been purely theoretical. In April, astronomers behind the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration photographed the first ever shadow of a black hole millions of light-years from Earth. But little is still known about the exact nature of these terrifying objects and speculation is rampant.

This is why astronomer Michelle Thaller, who is the assistant director of Science Communications at , said dark holes challenge our understanding of physics.

The  experts appeared in a science video for Big Think, where she discussed the idea black holes are key to cracking the secrets of the universe.

And perhaps most shockingly, the astronomer suggested the universe in which we live is nothing more than a two-dimensional hologram.

Dr Thaller said: “Things are stopped in time as they fell into the black hole. And right at the boundary, there is almost kind of a sphere, a two-dimensional surface that somehow contains all the information about what’s inside the black hole.

READ MORE: 

Black hole shock: The universe is a hologram

Black hole SHOCK: Black holes and the universe could be a hologram in a shock twist (Image: GETTY)

“And this reminds people of something that humans invented, called a hologram.

“Now, a hologram is a two-dimensional object. You can make it out of glass or a piece of film. And you shine a light through it and all of a sudden, there seems to be three-dimensional projections.

“And the idea is that we are looking at some fundamental way the universe stores information. Around a black hole, where space and time have been crushed out of existence, could there be a shell of information, something like a hologram?”

But how does this cosmic revelation suggest the universe at large is a form of a hologram?

READ MORE: 

According to Dr Thaller, black holes could be a miniaturised representation of how the universe works on a big scale.

This all sounds incredibly strange

Dr Michelle Thaller, NASA

In this scenario, all of the information in the universe is spread out across a 2D surface and we could be part of it.

But the astronomer said this does not in any way imply intent or creative design behind the hologram.

She said: “We’re just talking about the universe may really be information contained in a two-dimensional structure, not the three dimensions that we’re aware of now. This all sounds incredibly strange.

READ MORE: 

Black hole in space: Universe is a hologram

Black holes are incredible wells of gravity peppered throughout the cosmos (Image: GETTY)

Black hole: Dr Michelle Thaller

Black hole: Dr Michelle Thaller said the universe could be two-dimensional information (Image: BIG THINK)

“I’m always a little bit afraid to talk about it. But I think that the thing to really kind of gain from this is that black holes are staring us right in the face. We’re now observing them.

“They’re right there. And we cannot really describe how the universe should work with one of these things. They don’t make sense.”

On April 10, 2019, the EHT collaboration published the world’s first ever photograph of a distant black hole at the heart of galaxy Messier 87.

The historic achievement confirmed the existence of black holes 100 years after they were theorised by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity and by astronomer Karl Schwarzschild.