Catalonia’s leaders are jailed

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE WASHINGTON POST)

 

Catalonia’s leaders are jailed a week after the region declared independence


Thousands of people rally outside the regional presidential palace in Barcelona on Tuesday to show their support for those appearing in court. (Manu Fernandez/AP)
 November 2 at 4:12 PM
 A Spanish judge on Thursday ordered the jailing of eight of Catalonia’s separatist leaders a week after the region declared independence, extending the tough crackdown on the breakaway effort.The decision not to free the former officials on bail ahead of their trials on charges of rebellion, sedition and the misuse of public funds came after an Oct. 27 takeover of the region following the Catalan Parliament’s vote to secede.

The imprisonments set off an immediate outcry from independence advocates in Catalonia, who said they fit into a repressive pattern from the Spanish state that began when national police intervened with truncheons and violence to try to prevent an independence referendum from being held on Oct. 1. Town squares across Catalonia filled with protesters after the decision was announced late Thursday afternoon.

A prosecutor also asked Judge Carmen Lamela to approve an international arrest warrant for former Catalan president Carles Puigdemont, who fled to Belgium on Monday alongside other officials. An extradition request would set the ground for a difficult diplomatic dance between Spain and Belgium, which allows E.U. citizens to claim political asylum and which is partly ruled by Flemish nationalists sympathetic to the Catalan cause.

Lamela planned to decide on the warrant Friday. In denying bail, she said the leaders still in Spain were a flight risk, citing the retreat by Puigdemont and others to Brussels.

 Play Video 0:48
Catalan secessionist leaders arrive at court without Puigdemont
Catalonia’s secessionist leaders arrived at a Madrid court Nov. 2 to answer charges of rebellion and sedition. The region’s former president Carles Puigdemont said he would not turn up. (Reuters)

Puigdemont refused to appear at the Madrid court on Thursday, saying that the charges were politically motivated. The leaders are facing prison terms of up to 30 years. In all, 20 officials are charged.

Apart from the eight people sent to jail Thursday, a ninth was allowed free on bail of $58,000 because he resigned from the Catalan government before the independence declaration.

“A long and fierce repression lies ahead. We must combat the situation as Catalans do, without violence, in peace,” Puigdemont said Thursday in a televised address to Catalans that appeared to be recorded in his Brussels hotel room. He has said that he remains Catalonia’s leader and that the decision by Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy to use constitutional powers to strip him of office was illegal.

The decision to put the former officials behind bars meant that the highest-profile Catalan separatist leaders will probably not be able to run in Dec. 21 regional elections that Rajoy called after dismissing the government. After darkness fell Thursday, the former officials were transferred in police vans with flashing blue lights to the Alcala-Meco Prison outside Madrid.

The move was condemned even by some pro-union Catalan leaders, who said it was needlessly harsh.

“This is a black day for democracy and for Catalonia,” said Barcelona Mayor Ada Colau, who appeared close to tears as she spoke to journalists late Thursday. Colau has said she believes Catalonia should have more autonomy but should not be independent.

The crackdown drew condemnation from several other leaders in Europe, including the heads of Scotland and Belgian Flanders, two regions that have sought independence or more autonomy from their national governments.

“Jailing democratically elected government leaders = more than bridge too far,” the leader of Belgium’s Flanders region, Geert Bourgeois, wrote on Twitter.

That was echoed by Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, who wrote that “regardless of opinion on Catalonia, the jailing of elected leaders is wrong and should be condemned by all democrats.” She added: “The disagreement about Catalonia’s future is political. It should be resolved democratically — not by the jailing of political opponents.”

Opinion polls show that support for independence in Catalonia is growing but that slightly less than half of the population seeks a split.

Braden Phillips contributed to this report.

Spain: How Many People Will They Be Willing To Butcher In Catalonia?

Spain: How Many People Will They Be Willing To Butcher In Catalonia?

 

As most folks who are interested in this ‘Autonomy’ issue between the nation of Spain and the nation of Catalonia realize the government of Spain appears ready to invade the nation of Catalonia. The reason for this arrogance is that the people of the nation of Catalonia voted on October first of this year to truly separate themselves from the federal government of Spain. By the articles that I have read since the first of October concerning the succession vote by the people of Catalonia it appears that the people voted at a 90-92% rate to completely break away from Spanish rule.

 

The King of Spain and their Prime Minister tried to make it difficult for the people to vote back on the first by using the police to beat and arrest people at the polling locations as well as trying to close those locations. The government leaders I just mentioned have made it plain that they will not tolerate Catalonia breaking away from Spain and they have made it very plain that they are going to use the Spanish police and Spain’s military to remove the elected government leaders of Catalonia. They have also made it plain that the government in Madrid will place their own choices into the seats of government of Catalonia. Yesterday in Barcelona over 500,000 marched against Spanish rule, is Spain willing to kill or imprison hundreds of thousands of people?

 

The population of Catalonia is about 7.5 million people which is about 15% of Spain’s total population. Catalonia is a huge creator of wealth for Spain, they generate about 20% of Spain’s GDP. Is this the issue that has the politicians in Madrid bearing their teeth at Catalonia? If you have not studied the history of these two nations and how they sort of became one please allow me to pass on some information to you. Two nations became one through a wedding in 1469 A.D.. One King, one Queen formed one country. Pretty much ever since this event the people of Catalonia have been trying to break free from the grip of Madrid. They have had autonomy several times just to have it yanked away again and again. This is what is about to happen right now. Catalonia has always had its own culture and its own language and they simply want their freedom back.

 

The government leaders including the King of Spain are having to make a decision right now about what they are going to do about the people in Catalonia. If the people and the government of Catalonia stand firm and refuse to have their own elected leaders removed for vassals of Madrid, what is the Spanish government going to do? Will they go into Catalonia like the Russians did with Czechoslovakia in 1968? How many freedom wanting people is the Madrid government willing to kill and to imprison to keep these people under their thumb? I have a bad feeling that the world is about to find out the answer to that question very soon. Would it not be better for all of the people of Spain and the Spanish government, to have a good friend/brother next door to them, a true ally? If Spain does go in and force their way on these people they are going to have an enemy in their midst, not a friend. I am sure that Madrid is mostly worried about losing 20% of their GDP yet they will lose a lot more than that if the people of Catalonia are butchered because they want their freedom back.

Catalonia’s leaders slam Spanish government plans for direct rule

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CNN)

 

Catalonia’s leaders slam Spanish government plans for direct rule

Uproar in Catalonia

Uproar in Barcelona over Madrid direct rule plan 01:17

Story highlights

  • Spanish PM Rajoy outlined his plan to suspend Catalonia’s autonomy
  • Nearly half a million people marched against the measures in Barcelona

Barcelona, Spain (CNN)Catalan leaders have insisted they will reject any attempt by Madrid to impose direct rule on their autonomous region, as a political crisis escalates over Catalonia’s threats to declare independence from Spain.

On Saturday, Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy announced his plans to dissolve the Catalan parliament under a never-before-used article of the Constitution, vowing to remove the region’s elected leaders as soon as possible and hold new elections.
It is the most serious threat Rajoy has made since Catalonia held an independence referendum on October 1, triggering Spain’s worst political crisis in decades.
Madrid dismissed the vote as illegal but Catalan leaders saw it as a mandate to announce a split from the country.

Rajoy urges removal of Catalan President

Rajoy urges removal of Catalan President 02:31

What will direct rule mean?

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On Sunday, Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis gave a glimpse into what Catalonia under direct rule might look like.
“We are going to establish the authorities who are going to rule the day-to-day affairs of Catalonia according to the Catalan laws and norms,” he told the BBC’s Andrew Marr.

Demonstrators march in Barcelona on Saturday.

He called on the Catalan people to ignore the current regional authorities, including the police, once Madrid declared direct rule and said that new elections should bring in new leaders.
“They wont have any legal authority, so they will be equal to a group of rebels trying to impose their own arbitrariness on the people of Catalonia,” he said.
He said that the regional police could resume their duties once they had been placed under the authority of Madrid or newly elected Catalan leaders.
Dastis denied that Madrid would need to send in large numbers of police or the military to impose direct rule.
“We hope the regional police, once put under the control of people who respect and who uphold the Catalan rules and Spanish rules, everything will be fine.”

‘Attack on democracy’

On Saturday, nearly half a million people protested in Barcelona, Catalonia’s biggest city.
Demonstrators shouted “Freedom! Freedom! Freedom!” and “Rajoy, Rajoy, so you know we are leaving!”
Catalan President Carles Puigdemont was among the throngs, but he stopped short of declaring independence, as he had threatened to do earlier in the week.
“The Catalan institutions and the people of Catalonia cannot accept this attack,” he said later in a televised statement, accusing Madrid of seeking the “humiliation” of the Catalan people.
“What is being done with Catalonia is directly an attack on democracy that opens the door to other abuses of the same kind anywhere, not just in Catalonia.”

Protesters hold signs reading "Freedom for the two Jordis" on Saturday, referring to two jailed Catalan activists.

Other Catalan politicians were similarly defiant. Catalan parliamentary leader Carme Forcadell accused Rajoy of “enormous political irresponsibility” that “trespassed all limits.”
“He announced a de facto coup d’etat with which he aims to take over Catalan institutions,” Forcadell said Saturday.
“We will not take a step back. We were chosen by the people of this country as legitimate representatives, and as public servants we owe ourselves to them.”

Rajoy calls for new elections

Rajoy is seeking to employ Article 155 of the constitution, which would allow the national government to suspend the autonomy of the Catalan regional administration. Rajoy said the measure would be sent to the Spanish Senate within the week.
New elections should be called for Catalonia within six months, Rajoy said, adding that he wants it to happen as soon as possible.
Under the measures proposed Saturday by Rajoy, Puigdemont, his vice president and ministers would be suspended and replaced by the administration in Madrid, where necessary.

How Catalonia's independence crisis unfolded

How Catalonia’s independence crisis unfolded 01:49
“The government had to enforce Article 155. It wasn’t our desire, nor our intention. It never was,” Rajoy said. “But in this situation, no government of any democratic country can accept that the law is ignored.”
In undertaking these steps, the government has four goals, Rajoy said — to return to legality; to restore normality and coexistence in Catalonia; to continue the region’s economic recovery; and to hold elections under normal conditions.

Spain’s FM denies excessive use of force

Catalan media reacted Sunday to Rajoy’s announcement with editorials goading Puigdemont to declare independence soon.
The Catalan daily Diari Ara published photos of the march under the banner “Freedom,” while the daily El Punt Avui showed a photo of Rajoy in black and white overlooking the colorful protests under a the headline: “Returning to the past.” It also ran an editorial under the headline: “An unacceptable attack.”
Every move Madrid has made to ward off an independence declaration, the Catalan people appear to have responded to with more vigor.

Spanish police officers try to disperse voters at a polling station in Barcelona on October 1.

Madrid sent thousands of police into Catalonia to stop the October 1 vote, but officers were seen using what many called excessive force, shooting rubber bullets at protesters, dragging voters from polling stations by their hair and restraining elderly people.
Even though members of the Spanish government eventually apologized for the police’s force that day, Dastis defended the police Sunday, saying that the use of force was “limited” and “provoked,” and that many of the images had been doctored and constituted “fake news.”

Implications of independence

Nearly 7.5 million people live in Catalonia, an economic powerhouse in the northeast of Spain. Spain’s population is almost 49 million.
More than 2.25 million people turned out to vote, with the regional government reporting that 90% of voters favored a split from Madrid. But the turnout was low — around 43% of the voter roll — which Catalan officials blamed on the central government’s efforts to stop the referendum.
An independent Catalonia would be outside the European Union and its single market, which is essentially a free-trade zone.
EU leaders have backed the Madrid government in its handling of the crisis, which Rajoy insists is an internal matter.
Catalonia would also sit outside the World Trade Organization, which could have consequences for the region’s economic health.
Amid the uncertainty, businesses have already started to move their legal headquarters out of Catalonia. According to a tweet Friday by the National Association of Registers, 1,185 companies began that process between October 2 and 19.

Catalonia crisis: Puigdemont to ask region’s parliament to discuss ‘attack’ by Madrid

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CNN)

 

Catalonia crisis: Puigdemont to ask region’s parliament to discuss ‘attack’ by Madrid

Rajoy urges removal of Catalan President 02:31

Story highlights

  • Catalan’s president was expected to address the pro-independence crowd Saturday
  • The region’s succession could have dire economic effects for Spain

Barcelona, Spain (CNN)[Breaking news update, posted at 3:35 p.m. ET]

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont will ask the region’s parliament to discuss Spain’s attempt to curb Catalan self-government, he said Saturday in a televised address. “The Catalan institutions and the people of Catalonia cannot accept this attack,” he said. He did not announce Catalan independence in the statement.
[Previous update, posted at 3:09 p.m. ET]
Nearly half a million people took to the streets Saturday in Barcelona, waving flags and banners in support of Catalonia’s independence from Spain.
The rally unfolded just hours after Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy announced his government would invoke rarely used constitutional powers to remove Catalonia’s leaders.
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Demonstrators shouted, “Freedom! Freedom! Freedom!” and “Rajoy, Rajoy, so you know we are leaving!”
Catalan President Carles Puigdemont was among the protest crowd, which police estimated at 450,000 people. He was scheduled to speak later Saturday.
The unprecedented constitutional measures — intended to end Catalan leaders’ independence bid — fall under Article 155 of the Spanish constitution and would have to be sent to the Spanish Senate for approval. This would happen within the next week, Rajoy said.

Rajoy, left, called Saturday for the removal of Catalan President Carles Puigdemont.

The Madrid government announced Thursday that it would invoke Article 155, a provision that allows it to suspend the autonomy of the Catalan regional administration.
The move followed weeks of division triggered by a banned independence referendum on October 1.
Puigdemont on Thursday threatened that his wealthy northeastern region could formally declare independence if the Spanish government did not engage in dialogue.
Nearly 7.5 million people live in Catalonia. Spain’s population is almost 49 million.

Move to oust in Senate’s hands

Under the measures proposed Saturday by Rajoy, Puigdemont, his vice president and ministers would be suspended and replaced by the administration in Madrid, where necessary.
“The government had to enforce Article 155. It wasn’t our desire, nor our intention. It never was,” Rajoy said. “But in this situation, no government of any democratic country can accept that the law is ignored.”
In undertaking these steps, the government has four goals, Rajoy said. These are: to return to legality; to restore normality and coexistence in Catalonia; to continue the region’s economic recovery; and to hold elections under normal conditions.
“The autonomy is not suspended, nor the government,” he said. “People are removed who put the government outside the law, outside the constitution and outside statutes.”
New elections should be called for Catalonia within six months, Rajoy said, adding that he wants it to happen as soon as possible.
“The only way for Article 155 to be stopped is if the Senate votes it down,” he said.
Rajoy’s Popular Party holds a majority in the Senate. Two Spanish opposition parties, PSOE and Ciudadanos, have also said they will back the Article 155 measures, Rajoy said.
Senate Vice President Pedro Sanz said the Senate would hold a session Friday morning to vote on Article 155.
Spain’s national prosecutor’s office told CNN it is preparing to file charges of rebellion if Catalan authorities declare a declaration of independence. It did not name Puigdemont or any other officials as possible defendants.

Protesters to rally

The crisis threatens to fracture Spain, one of the European Union’s principal members, and has prompted mass public protests in Catalonia and elsewhere.
The immediate response of Catalan politicians appeared to be one of defiance.
“In the face of totalitarianism, today more than ever, we defend democracy and civil and political rights, you will find us there,” Catalan Vice President Oriol Junqueras said via Twitter.
“Today President Rajoy, in an act of enormous political irresponsibility, trespassed all limits. He announced a de facto coup d’etat with which he aims to take over Catalan institutions,” said Catalan Parliamentary leader Carme Forcadell.
Barcelona Mayor Ada Colao tweeted: “Rajoy has suspended the Catalan self-government for which so many people fought. A serious attack against the rights and freedom of many, here and everywhere.”
Puigdemont said Thursday that if Madrid “persists in blocking dialogue and the repression continues,” the Catalan parliament reserved the right to formalize a declaration of independence that was suspended on October 10.
At that session, Puigdemont said that Catalonia had “earned the right” to become an independent republic in its October 1 referendum, which was banned by Spain’s Constitutional Court. But he suspended the effects of the declaration to allow for talks.
Puigdemont also demanded Spain end its “repression” of Catalan separatist leaders, two of whom were taken into custody on suspicion of sedition earlier in the week.

People hold candles and a Catalan flag during a demonstration in Barcelona against the arrest of two Catalan separatist leaders on October 17.

More than 2.25 million people turned out to vote on October 1, with the regional government reporting that 90% of voters were in favor of a split from Madrid. But the turnout was low — around 43% of the voter roll — which Catalan officials blamed on the central government’s efforts to stop the referendum.
Violent scenes unfolded as national police sought to prevent people from casting their ballots.

Marchers demand the release of imprisoned Catalan leaders Jordi Sanchez and Jordi Cuixart on Saturday in Barcelona.

Rajoy urges unity

Rajoy said Saturday that Puigdemont had repeatedly rejected opportunities to talk to Madrid before calling the banned referendum and insisted his own government was acting to protect the interests of all Spaniards, especially Catalans.

Catalan families divided over independence

Catalan families divided over independence 01:48
“I am fully aware this moment is difficult but all together we are going to overcome (it), as we have previously overcome very complicated events throughout our history,” he said.
Rajoy also warned that an independent Catalonia would be outside the European Union and the World Trade Organization, with dire consequences for the region’s economic health.
A combination of higher tariffs, lack of access to credit and “disproportionate” inflation would lead to “impoverishment of the Catalan economy of between 25 and 30%,” he said.
Amid the uncertainty, businesses have already started to move their legal headquarters out of Catalonia, Spain’s economic powerhouse. According to a tweet Friday by the National Association of Registers, 1,185 companies began that process between October 2 and 19.
Spain’s King Felipe VI said Friday that Spain was facing an “unacceptable” attempt at secession and that Catalonia must continue to be a central part of the nation.
EU leaders have backed the Madrid government in its handling of the crisis, which Rajoy insists is an internal matter.
European Council President Donald Tusk described the Catalonia situation as “concerning” but said there was “no space for EU intervention,” in remarks Thursday in Brussels.

Catalan Leader Proclaims Independence But Suspends It

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE HINDUSTAN TIMES)

 

Catalan leader proclaims independence but suspends it to allow talks with Madrid

The Spanish government has said any unilateral declaration of independence would be illegal and has promised action “to restore law and democracy”.

WORLD Updated: Oct 11, 2017 00:18 IST

Reuters, Barcelona
Catalan President Carles Puigdemont gestures during a plenary session in the Catalan regional parliament in Barcelona, Spain, October 10, 2017.
Catalan President Carles Puigdemont gestures during a plenary session in the Catalan regional parliament in Barcelona, Spain, October 10, 2017. (REUTERS)

Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont on Tuesday proclaimed the region’s independence from Spain but said its effects would be suspended to allow for talks with the Madrid government.

“I assume the mandate that Catalonia should become an independent state in the form of a republic … I propose suspending the effects of the declaration of independence to undertake talks to reach an agreed solution,” Puigdemont told the regional parliament in Barcelona.

Though Puigdemont stopped short of seeking the explicit support of the chamber for the declaration of independence in a vote, a move that would have closed the door to any negotiated solution, the declaration plunges Spain into the unknown.

The Spanish government has said any unilateral declaration of independence would be illegal and has promised action “to restore law and democracy” if the parliament of the autonomous and affluent northeastern region presses ahead.

Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy could take the unprecedented step of dissolving the Catalan parliament and triggering new regional elections, the so-called “nuclear option”.

The Madrid government could also ask the courts to strike down a declaration of independence as unconstitutional.

Despite renewed calls for dialogue with Madrid, the proclamation makes a negotiated solution more difficult as Rajoy has said he would not talk to the Catalan leaders until they drop plans for independence.

King of Spain joins Barcelona march of defiance against terrorism

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE BBC)

 

King of Spain joins Barcelona march of defiance against terrorism

Media caption Police estimated half a million attended the event

Hundreds of thousands of people in Barcelona have marched against militant Islamists who left 15 people dead in and around the city last week.

King Felipe VI led the demonstrators, alongside Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy.

The king is the first Spanish sovereign to take part in a demonstration since the monarchy was re-established in the 1970s.

Emergency workers and shop staff who helped during the attack at Las Ramblas also took pride of place.

The procession set off behind a banner bearing the slogan “I’m not afraid”. Other placards denounced Islamophobia.

Some signs read Image copyright REUTERS
Image caption Some signs read “No tenim por”, meaning “We are not afraid” in Catalan

During the march, the king and prime minister walked the streets in front of hundreds of Catalan flags – the emblem for the autonomous region’s long-running independence claim.

Some protesters whistled and shouted “out” at the king.

Catalonia, of which Barcelona is the capital, is due to holds its unrecognised independence referendum in October.

Prime Minister Rajoy had encouraged “everyone” to take part to show that “Catalonia and the rest of Spain [are] united against terror”.

Tens of thousands of people marched togetherImage copyrightREUTERS
Image captionTens of thousands of people marched together

The 17 August attack – which saw a van deliberately driven into people on the Las Ramblas boulevard – was claimed by the Islamic State group.

The driver later stabbed and killed a man while hijacking his vehicle. Hours later, a car attack in nearby Cambrils killed another woman.

cell of 12 jihadists has been blamed for the attack. Eight are dead, while four have appeared in court in Madrid.

King Felipe has reigned in Spain since 2014, when his father, King Juan Carlos I, abdicated.

Spain’s monarchy was restored after the death of military dictator Francisco Franco in 1975.

Barcelona and Cambrils attacks: What we know so far

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE BBC)

 

Barcelona and Cambrils attacks: What we know so far

People wait to enter the area after a van crashed into pedestrians near the Las Ramblas avenue in central Barcelona, Spain August 17, 2017Image copyright REUTERS
Image caption Barcelona is one of Europe’s most popular cities for tourists

There have been two attacks in Spain’s Catalonia region involving people driving cars at crowds at high-speeds.

Here is what we know so far.

What happened?

On Thursday afternoon at 16:50 local time (14:50 GMT) a white van smashed into people on Las Ramblas, a famous boulevard in central Barcelona that runs 1.2km (0.75 miles) and was packed with tourists.

The van driver is said to have zig-zagged to try and hit as many people as possible along the pedestrianised area, knocking many to the floor and sending others fleeing for cover in shops and cafes.

He killed 13 people and injured more than 100, and managed to flee the scene.

Spanish police have described it as a terror attack.

Barcelona map

What was the second attack?

About eight hours later, an Audi A3 car ploughed into pedestrians in the popular seaside resort town of Cambrils, 110km (68 miles) south-west of Barcelona.

Six civilians were injured, one critically, and a police officer was hurt too.

Five attackers, some of whom appeared to be wearing suicide belts, were then shot by police. Four died at the scene and one later died of his injuries.

Controlled explosions were carried out and authorities later said the explosive belts were fake.

Both the Las Ramblas and Cambrils attacks are believed to be linked.

Who has been arrested?

On Thursday, one person from Spain’s north African enclave of Melilla was arrested in Alcanar and a Moroccan was arrested in Ripoll. Both are towns in Catalonia – the same region as Barcelona.

Police say neither of the pair arrested was the driver.

Documents belonging to the Moroccan, 28-year-old Driss Oubakir, were allegedly used to rent the van used in the Las Ramblas attack but local media report he says his papers were stolen and used without his knowledge.

He arrived in Barcelona from Morocco on 13 August, the El Pais newspaper reports, citing police sources.

On Friday, police announced another arrest in Ripoll. It remains unclear how many people were involved in the plots.

Weren’t there other incidents too?

On Thursday evening at 19:30 local time, a car was driven into officers at a checkpoint on the outskirts of Barcelona.

The car was later found with a dead man inside it, but the interior ministry has denied earlier reports he was killed by police gunfire. He is not believed to be linked to the Las Ramblas attack, officials say, but investigations are ongoing

On Wednesday night, an explosion completely destroyed a house in Alcanar, 200km south of Barcelona, killing one person and wounding seven.

Media caption What was it like to be caught up in the Barcelona attack?

The house was filled with bottles of propane and butane, Spanish newspaper El Pais reported (in Spanish).

That incident is believed to be connected to Thursday’s events.

Who are the victims?

They come from all over the world, with at least 24 nationalities represented.

People from Ireland, France, Australia, China, Pakistan, Venezuela, Algeria, Peru, Germany, the Netherlands, Greece, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Philippines are all reported to be among the victims.

Aftermath of Barcelona attack in pictures

Belgium said one of its citizens was killed and France said 26 of its nationals were injured, 11 seriously. The Australian government said at least four citizens were injured.

Who is responsible?

So-called Islamic State (IS) has said it was behind the Las Ramblas attack and that IS “soldiers” carried it out. But it did not provide any evidence or details to back up the claim.

Why Spain?

The country is one of Europe’s most popular tourist destinations but in recent years has not seen the kind of jihadist violence that has rocked France, the UK, Belgium and Germany.

Still, Spain has been targeted before – several trains in Madrid, the capital, were bombed by al-Qaeda inspired militants in 2004, killing 191 people.

The IS news agency, Amaq, said the attack was carried out as part of efforts to target states fighting in the US-led anti-IS coalition.

A few hundred Spanish soldiers are in Iraq, training local forces fighting the Sunni militant group.

How much jihadist activity is there in the country?

The number of operations carried out against jihadists has increased significantly since Spain raised its terror alert level to four out of five in June 2015, meaning there was “high risk” of a terror attack.

Before these attacks, 51 suspected jihadists had already been detained in the country this year, while 69 were detained last year, and 75 were detained in 2015, according to El Pais.

Security and surveillance was stepped up in the wake of truck attacks in the French city of Nice in July 2016 and the German capital Berlin in December.

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