Revelation Chapter #2

Revelation Chapter #2

 

Chapter #2 is about the Church on the Earth. The Church is the bought and paid for Bride of Christ. In the first 3 chapters of this Book the Church is mentioned 19 times. Yet from chapter 4 through chapter 20 it is not mentioned at all. The logical question at this point would be, why not. The Book of Revelation is about what was, what is, and what will be. So, chapters 2 and 3 are mostly focused on the now. You will see that after chapter 3 the Church leaves the Earth. This is the answer to why the Church is not spoken of in chapters 4-20. These chapters cover what will yet be, what will happen.

 

When Jesus addressed these 7 Churches in Asia Minor He had a three fold message for them. His 7 messages to these 7 Churches of the late first century were direct in their meaning. By the way, the ruins of these 7 Churches still exist today if you ever feel like taking yourself a modern day vacation to the area to visit them. In John’s writing it is also obvious that he knew these Churches personally as well as there local traditions and conditions and that they knew him. Each message to each of the Churches was also a composite picture of the individual Church. All Churches are made up of individual people and they, like people, will tend to have their own personalities about them. An example would be the Church in Philadelphia and it is easy to see within our own mind and heart that the Lord addresses each Church on these matters. You see, every Church then and now must be uniform in that Jesus Christ is The Head of The Church. We must all walk our lives individually by the examples that Jesus lived and spelled out for us, as the Churches that we attend must also do. The Church is the Body of Christ, Jesus is the Head of The Church, it is not the other way around. Chronologically a panoramic history of the Church is given within these 7 Church addresses beginning from the Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem. If you will notice there are 7 periods of Church history written within these 7 addresses.

 

Ephesus represents the Apostolic Church and Laodicea represents the Apostate Church. The prophetic pictures John paint for us within these two addresses to these two Churches have for the most part been fulfilled. Partially this is what help in making these early chapters so interesting. John painted a well defined format that The Lord used in each of the letters to these 7 Churches. If you can remember from Chapter #1 there was some features from the Glorified Lord that was emphasized in the address to each Church, a particular thing that was emphasized for its own reason.

 

The Lord starts off His address to each Church with “I know your works.”  Then in most cases The Lord salutes each Church with a Commendation and then a Condemnation. But, in the cases of the Churches in Smyrna and Philadelphia He gave no condemnation. The reasons for this are simple, Smyrna was a martyr Church and Philadelphia was a missionary Church that was effectively getting out His Word. But it is also very noteworthy to notice that the Church in Laodicea received no commendation. This is because it was an apostate Church, a Church that had fallen away from the teachings of God in which it had been founded upon. Each of the 7 letters to the 7 Churches ends with the following warning, “he that has an ear let him hear what The Spirit says.” If you were wondering why these particular 7 Churches were chosen out of the hundreds that existed at that time, their location is something to consider. This area is where modern day Turkey and Greece are located. This area had a lot of importance within the Roman Empire as it is and was where the East meets the West, this is so in the case of trade, cultures and religion.

 

In chapter #2 you will find The Lords words to the first 4 Churches. In verses (1-7) to Ephesus. In verses (8-11) to Smyrna. In verses (12-17) to Pergamos. Then finally in verses (18-29) to the Church in Thyatira. The letters to the other three Churches you will find in chapter #3, these Churches are Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea. Now, if you would please consider the words The Lord had to say to these first four Churches. “Unto the Angel of the Church of Ephesus write these things which The Lord Himself has to say to them.” “I know your works and your labor and your patience. How you can not tolerate them which are evil. And how you have tried them which say they are Apostles and are not, and you have found them to be liars.  Also how you have borne burdens and have been persistent and for My Names sake have labored and have not become weak. Never the less I have something against you, because you have left your first love. Remember therefore from where you are fallen and repent and practice your first works, or else I will come unto you quickly and will remove your Candlestick our of it’s place, unless you repent.” “But there is one thing that you hate. That is the deeds of make believe Christians, which I also hate. He that has an ear let him hear what The Spirit is saying unto the Churches. To him that overcomes this world I will give to eat of the Tree of Life which is in the midst of the presence of God.” You see my friends, there is such a thing as falling away from The Truth of God and there is no such thing as once saved always saved.

 

Now the message from Jesus to the Church at Smyrna. ” To the Angel of the Church in Smyrna write; these things The Lord has to say to you, He which is the first and the last, which was dead and is alive.” “I know your works and your tribulation (times of great affliction) and your poverty (but you are rich). I know the blasphemy of those which say they are Jews and are not, but are of the Synagogue of Satan, fear none of those things which you shall suffer. Behold, the Devil will cast some of you into prison that you may be tested and you shall have tribulation. But if you are faithful unto death I will give you a Crown of Life. He that has an ear to hear, let him hear what The Spirit says unto the Churches. He that overcomes shall not be hurt of the Second Death.” (Second death means the permanent separation from God). Again my friends, The Lord says very plainly that we must remain faithful until our death. These Churches that do not teach this are not teaching God’s Word.

 

Now lets read the letter to the Church at Pergamos. “To the Angel of the Church in Pergamos write these things say’s He which has the sharp sword with two edges. I know your works and where you live. I even know where Satan’s Seat is. I know that you fold fast to My Name. And that you have not abandoned My Faith. Even in those days when Antipas was My faithful martyr who was slain among you where Satan dwells. But I have a few things against you because among you there are those that hold to the doctrine of Balaam who taught Balac to cast a stumbling block before the children of Israel. To eat things which had been sacrificed to idols and to commit fornication. You also have among you those that follow the teachings of make believe Christians which is something I hate. Repent, or else I will come unto you quickly and will fight against you with the sword of My mouth. He that has an ear let him hear what The Spirit has to say to the Churches. To him that overcomes this world I will give them to eat of the hidden manna and will give them a White Stone. And in the Stone a new name written which no man will recognize except for he that receives it.” My friends, the same thing again and again, we must remain faithful through the time of our own death. Also, that it does matter very much what the Churches are teaching to their flock. Also, it is the duty of the Body of the Church to know what the Truth is by studying God’s Word daily. It is the duty of the Body of the Church to always insist that the Church Leadership is teaching God’s Word.

 

Now for the last of the 4 Churches of chapter #2, Thyatira. “Unto the Angel of the Church in Thyatira write, these things saith the Son of God who has His Eyes like unto a flame of fire and His Feet are like fine brass. I know your works and charity and service and faith and your patience. But I still have a few things against you because you allow that woman Jezebel which calls herself a Prophetess to teach and to mislead My Servants to commit fornication and to eat things that have been sacrificed to idols. I gave her time to repent of her fornication but she did not repent. Behold I will cast her into a bed and those that promote pagan religious ideas with her into great troubles, unless they repent of these deeds. I will kill her offspring with death and all the Churches shall realize that I am He which Judges the wills and the hearts. And I will give unto everyone of you according to your works. But to you I say and unto the rest in Thyatira and for those who do not practice pagan doctrine and have not experienced the depths of Satan as they speak; I will put upon you no other burden. But the faith and the doctrine which you already have, hold firmly until I come. He that overcomes and maintains My works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. He that has an ear let him hear what The Spirit saith unto the Churches.” Friends, as you can easily see The Lord Jesus does have many things to say to the Churches then and to the Churches now, just as He has a lot to say to the individual person then and to you and I today.

Lost World Of Shipwrecks Have Been Found In The Black Sea Off Of Bulgarian Coast

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE NEW YORK TIME’S, SCIENCE SECTION)

An image of the well-preserved medieval ship found at the bottom of the Black Sea, one of more than 40 wrecks discovered. Photogrammetry, a process using thousands of photographs and readings, produced a rendering that appears three-dimensional.Credit Expedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

The medieval ship lay more than a half-mile down at the bottom of the Black Sea, its masts, timbers and planking undisturbed in the darkness for seven or eight centuries. Lack of oxygen in the icy depths had ruled out the usual riot of creatures that feast on sunken wood.

This fall, a team of explorers lowered a robot on a long tether, lit up the wreck with bright lights and took thousands of high-resolution photos. A computer then merged the images into a detailed portrait.

Archaeologists date the discovery to the 13th or 14th century, opening a new window on forerunners of the 15th- and 16th-century sailing vessels that discovered the New World, including those of Columbus. This medieval ship probably served the Venetian empire, which had Black Sea outposts.

Never before had this type of ship been found in such complete form. The breakthrough was the quarterdeck, from which the captain would have directed a crew of perhaps 20 sailors.

“That’s never been seen archaeologically,” said Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz, an expedition member at the Center for Maritime Archaeology at the University of Southampton, in Britain. “We couldn’t believe our eyes.”

A photogrammetric image of a ship from the Ottoman era that most likely went down between the 17th and 19th centuries. The discoverers nicknamed it the Flower of the Black Sea because of its ornate carvings, including two large posts topped with petals. Credit Expedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

Remarkably, the find is but one of more than 40 shipwrecks that the international team recently discovered and photographed off the Bulgarian coast in one of archaeology’s greatest coups.

In age, the vessels span a millennium, from the Byzantine to the Ottoman empires, from the ninth to the 19th centuries. Generally, the ships are in such good repair that the images reveal intact coils of rope, rudders and elaborately carved decorations.

“They’re astonishingly preserved,” said Jon Adams, the leader of the Black Sea project and founding director of the maritime archaeology center at the University of Southampton.

Kroum Batchvarov, a team member at the University of Connecticut who grew up in Bulgaria and has conducted other studies in its waters, said the recent discoveries “far surpassed my wildest expectations.”

Independent experts said the annals of deepwater archaeology hold few, if any, comparable sweeps of discovery in which shipwrecks have proved to be so plentiful, diverse and well-preserved.

A photogrammetric image of the stern of the Ottoman-era ship showing coils of rope and a tiller with elaborate carvings. A lack of oxygen at the icy depths of the Black Sea left the wrecks relatively undisturbed.Credit Expedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

“It’s a great story,” said Shelley Wachsmann of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University. “We can expect some real contributions to our understanding of ancient trade routes.”

Goods traded on the Black Sea included grains, furs, horses, oils, cloth, wine and people. The Tatars turned Christians into slaves who were shipped to places like Cairo. For Europeans, the sea provided access to a northern branch of the Silk Road and imports of silk, satin, musk, perfumes, spices and jewels.

Marco Polo reportedly visited the Black Sea, and Italian merchant colonies dotted its shores. The profits were so enormous that, in the 13th and 14th centuries, Venice and Genoa fought a series of wars for control of the trade routes, including those of the Black Sea.

Brendan P. Foley, an archaeologist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on Cape Cod, Mass., said the good condition of the shipwrecks implied that many objects inside their hulls might also be intact.

“You might find books, parchment, written documents,” he said in an interview. “Who knows how much of this stuff was being transported? But now we have the possibility of finding out. It’s amazing.”

Experts said the success in Bulgarian waters might inspire other nations that control portions of the Black Sea to join the archaeological hunt. They are Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

Dr. Foley, who has explored a number of Black Sea wrecks, said the sea’s overall expanse undoubtedly held tens of thousands of lost ships. “Everything that sinks out there is going to be preserved,” he added. “They’re not going away.”

For ages, the Black Sea was a busy waterway that served the Balkans, the Eurasian steppes, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Greece. It long beckoned to archaeologists because they knew its deep waters lacked oxygen, a rarity for large bodies of water.

The great rivers of Eastern Europe — the Don, the Danube, the Dnieper — pour so much fresh water into the sea that a permanent layer forms over denser, salty water from the Mediterranean. As a result, oxygen from the atmosphere that mixes readily with fresh water never penetrates the inky depths.

In 1976, Willard Bascom, a pioneer of oceanography, in his book “Deep Water, Ancient Ships,” called the Black Sea unique among the world’s seas and a top candidate for exploration and discovery.

A photogrammetric image of a Byzantine wreck, dating perhaps to the ninth century. Superimposed is an image of one of the expedition’s tethered robots that photographed the lost ships.CreditExpedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

“One is tempted,” he wrote, “to begin searching there in spite of the huge expanse of bottom that would have to be inspected.”

In 2002, Robert D. Ballard, a discoverer of the sunken Titanic, led a Black Sea expedition that found a 2,400-year-old wreck laden with the clay storage jars of antiquity. One held remnants of a large fish that had been dried and cut into steaks, a popular food in ancient Greece.

The new team said it received exploratory permits from the Bulgarian ministries of culture and foreign affairs and limited its Black Sea hunts to parts of that nation’s exclusive economic zone, which covers thousands of square miles and runs up to roughly a mile deep.

Although the team’s official name is the Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project, or Black Sea MAP, it also hauls up sediments to hunt for clues to how the sea’s rising waters engulfed former land surfaces and human settlements.

Team members listed on its website include the Bulgarian National Institute of Archaeology, the Bulgarian Center for Underwater Archaeology, Sodertorn University in Sweden, and the Hellenic Center for Marine Research in Greece.

An illustration of what the research team believes the medieval ship found in the Black Sea looked like during its heyday. Credit Jon Adams/University of Southampton/Black Sea MAP

The project’s financial backer is the Expedition and Education Foundation, a charity registered in Britain whose benefactors want to remain anonymous, team members said. Dr. Adams of the University of Southampton, the team’s scientific leader, described it as catalyzing an academic-industry partnership on the largest project “of its type ever undertaken.”

Nothing is known publicly about the cost, presumably vast, of the Black Sea explorations, which are to run for three years. The endeavor began last year with a large Greek ship doing a preliminary survey. This year, the main vessel was the Stril Explorer, a British-flagged ship bearing a helicopter landing pad that usually services the undersea pipes and structures of the offshore oil industry.

Instead, archaeologists on the ship lowered its sophisticated robots to hunt for ancient shipwrecks and lost history.

In an interview, Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz of the University of Southampton said he was watching the monitors late one night in September when the undersea robot lit up a large wreck in a high state of preservation.

“I was speechless,” he recalled. “When I saw the ropes, I couldn’t believe my eyes. I still can’t.”

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Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz said the vessel hailed from the Ottoman Empire, whose capital was Constantinople (today Istanbul), and most likely went down sometime between the 17th and 19th centuries. He said the team nicknamed it “Flower of the Black Sea” because its deck bears ornate carvings, including two large posts with tops that form petals.

In an interview, Dr. Batchvarov of the University of Connecticut said most of the discoveries date to the Ottoman era. So it was that, late one night, during his shift, he assumed that a new wreck coming into view would be more of the same.

“Then I saw a quarter rudder,” he recalled, referring to a kind of large steering oar on a ship’s side. It implied the wreck was much older. Then another appeared. Quickly, he had the expedition’s leader, Dr. Adams, awakened.

“He came immediately,” Dr. Batchvarov recalled. “We looked at each other like two little boys in a candy shop.”

Dr. Batchvarov said the wreck — the medieval one found more than a half-mile down — was part of a class known by several names, including cocha and “round ship.” The latter name arose from how its ample girth let it carry more cargo and passengers than a warship.

Dr. Adams said the remarkable color images of the lost ships derived from a process known as photogrammetry. It combines photography with the careful measurement of distances between objects, letting a computer turn flat images into renderings that seem three-dimensional.

He said tethered robots shot the photographic images with video and still cameras. The distance information, he added, came from advanced sonars, which emit high-pitched sounds that echo through seawater. Their measurements, he said, can range down to less than a millimeter.

A news release from the University of Southampton refers to the images as “digital models.” Their creation, it said, “takes days even with the fastest computers.”

Filmmakers are profiling the Black Sea hunt in a documentary, according to the team’s website.

Another part of the project seeks to share the thrill of discovery with schools and educators. Students are to study on the Black Sea, the website says, or join university scientists in analyzing field samples “to uncover the mysteries of the past.”

The team has said little publicly on whether it plans to excavate the ships — a topic on which nations, academics and treasure hunters have long clashed. Bulgaria is a signatory to the 2001 United Nations convention that outlaws commercial trade in underwater cultural heritage and sets out guidelines on such things as artifact recovery and public display.

Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz said the team had so far discovered and photographed 44 shipwrecks, and that more beckoned.

Which was the most important? Dr. Adams said that for him, a student of early European shipbuilding, the centerpiece was the medieval round ship. He said it evoked Marco Polo and city states like Venice. The ship, he added, incorporated a number of innovations that let it do more than its predecessors had and paved the way for bigger things to come.

“It’s not too much,” he said, “to say that medieval Europe became modern with the help of ships like these.”

Understanding The Book Of Revelation: Chapter #1

Revelation Chapter #1

The Book of Revelation is the Book that explains the end! The end? Yes, this Book explains the end of the Earth as we all know it, and it explains the end of the human race here on this planet as we know it. Revelation is a Book of prophesy about how our world will end. This Book, this Letter, was written by the Apostle John who was a Roman prisoner on the Isle of Patmos in the eastern Mediterranean in approximately the year 95 A.D.. This Book is the Revelation of the Son of God the Father Jehovah, our Lord Jesus the Christ. The material came from an Angel of Jesus Christ at the direction of Jesus and Jesus is the main character within its pages.

The style of the writing, the consistency show quite well that this Book was written by one person. John received this Apocalyptic information through direct words, signs and visions. Some folks wish to argue that this is not the writing of John the Apostle because the writing style is different from the other four Books that he wrote in the New Testament. This argument is (in my opinion, silly) the reason I say this is that John was a prisoner on a small island so it is quite logical that he did not have a Scribe to take down his words to write it for him. Like the other New Testament Books Revelation was written in the Greek Language which would not have been John’s first language, and with no Scribe, his Greek was not as fluid as in his other Books. Some people try to discredit this Book out of ignorance or the hate of Christianity or of God in general, there are also those who are simply Demonically evil who do not want us humans to understand God’s warnings to us. Friends, remember that the Demons, including Satan Himself have already been judged and they know that when this system is completed, they will be cast straightway into the fires of Hell and they want every single one of us humans to be there with them, for them to torture for ever and ever. Of all of the Books in the Bible this is the one Book that the Devil and His followers hate the most. Think about this for a moment, Revelation is like the last script of a movie or a play, if you want to find out how the play ends, read ‘The Ending.’ Folks, the ‘Ending’ is laid out for all of us humans in this Book. Friends, for any human who is not a follower of and a person who puts their faith and love in Jesus Christ, our ‘second death’ is shown to us quite plainly in this Book. The end of times here on this planet are going to be horrific for those who are non believers, I pray that you will not be one of them.

This Book is the Revelation that God the Father gave to His Son who was/is ‘The Christ’ for an Angel to give to the servants of Jesus Christ so that His servants would know the things that will come to pass here on the Earth. This Angel of God gave this information to the last surviving Apostle, John, for John to circulate amongst the Church. To John’s credit he did bear witness as he was instructed to do. As instructed John wrote this ‘Letter’ to the seven Churches of Asia-minor (modern-day Turkey). Jesus is spoken of as He which was, He which is, and He which is to come. You see, Jesus is the faithful witness of His Father that no human has ever seen (His Face). Friends, Jesus was the ultimate sacrifice whose blood washed away the sins of the human race making it possible for us to be clean in the presence of God. For a moment please think about verse number seven, “behold Jesus will come in the clouds and every eye shall see Him, they also which pierced Him, all the people’s of the Earth shall wail because of Him.” At the Second Advent of Jesus think how horrible a sight it will be for all the people of the Earth who have turned their back on Him. Think how horrific this event will be to those who spat on, whipped and mocked Him, and how much more so for those who drove the nails into Him. Jesus will be returning with His Holy Angels in the clouds and everyone will see Him, and every knee will bow before Him.

John was in prayer and meditation when he heard a great voice behind him say, v:3 “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” (v:11) “I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, what you are seeing write in a book and send it to the Churches which are in Asia. Unto Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and to Laodicea.” Now, if you would, place yourself in John’s spot. When John turned around to see whose voice it was that was speaking to him, he saw seven Golden Candlesticks. In the midst of the seven Golden Candlesticks stood a man who looked a lot like Jesus. The man was clothed down to his feet and wrapped around his waist was a Golden Girdle. His head and His hair were white like wool which was as white as snow. His eyes were like the flame of a fire. His feet were like that of a fine Brass as it glowed in a furnace. His voice was like unto the sound of many waters.

The Lord had in His right hand Seven Stars, and out of His mouth came a sharp two-edged sword. The Lord’s appearance was like unto the shining of the Sun in its strength. When John saw Him he fell at His feet as if he were dead. Now I admit that I also love the Lord with all my heart, mind and Soul but I think that there is a good chance that my heart would have stopped if I had turned and seen this site myself. Now let’s get back to the Scriptures starting with verse #17. At this time the Lord put His right hand upon John and said to him “Fear not, I am the First and the Last, I am He that lives and was dead. Behold I am alive forever more and I have the keys to Hell and to death.” “Write the things which you have seen, the things which are and the things which shall be hereafter.”  (v-20) “The mystery of the seven Stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven Golden Candlesticks. The seven Stars are the seven Angels of the seven Churches: and the seven candlesticks which you saw are the seven Churches.”

This completes the first chapter of this fascinating book of Prophecy. This first chapter simply lays the foundation for the rest of this really interesting story on the events that are here now, and that are coming for everyone who calls Earth their home.  Chapter number two is the messages that God has for those seven Churches in Asia-minor. Yet, don’t be fooled, the messages God has for those Churches, those people, are also directed at all Churches and all people. There are 22 chapters in this last Book of the Bible and each chapter has eternity shaking messages for all of us human beings, I hope that you will join me as we go through these messages from our Creator, to all of us. Thank you for your time, I appreciate you very much.

Lost World Of Shipwrecks Have Been Found In The Black Sea Off Of Bulgarian Coast

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE NEW YORK TIME’S, SCIENCE SECTION)

An image of the well-preserved medieval ship found at the bottom of the Black Sea, one of more than 40 wrecks discovered. Photogrammetry, a process using thousands of photographs and readings, produced a rendering that appears three-dimensional.Credit Expedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

The medieval ship lay more than a half-mile down at the bottom of the Black Sea, its masts, timbers and planking undisturbed in the darkness for seven or eight centuries. Lack of oxygen in the icy depths had ruled out the usual riot of creatures that feast on sunken wood.

This fall, a team of explorers lowered a robot on a long tether, lit up the wreck with bright lights and took thousands of high-resolution photos. A computer then merged the images into a detailed portrait.

Archaeologists date the discovery to the 13th or 14th century, opening a new window on forerunners of the 15th- and 16th-century sailing vessels that discovered the New World, including those of Columbus. This medieval ship probably served the Venetian empire, which had Black Sea outposts.

Never before had this type of ship been found in such complete form. The breakthrough was the quarterdeck, from which the captain would have directed a crew of perhaps 20 sailors.

“That’s never been seen archaeologically,” said Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz, an expedition member at the Center for Maritime Archaeology at the University of Southampton, in Britain. “We couldn’t believe our eyes.”

A photogrammetric image of a ship from the Ottoman era that most likely went down between the 17th and 19th centuries. The discoverers nicknamed it the Flower of the Black Sea because of its ornate carvings, including two large posts topped with petals. Credit Expedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

Remarkably, the find is but one of more than 40 shipwrecks that the international team recently discovered and photographed off the Bulgarian coast in one of archaeology’s greatest coups.

In age, the vessels span a millennium, from the Byzantine to the Ottoman empires, from the ninth to the 19th centuries. Generally, the ships are in such good repair that the images reveal intact coils of rope, rudders and elaborately carved decorations.

“They’re astonishingly preserved,” said Jon Adams, the leader of the Black Sea project and founding director of the maritime archaeology center at the University of Southampton.

Kroum Batchvarov, a team member at the University of Connecticut who grew up in Bulgaria and has conducted other studies in its waters, said the recent discoveries “far surpassed my wildest expectations.”

Independent experts said the annals of deepwater archaeology hold few, if any, comparable sweeps of discovery in which shipwrecks have proved to be so plentiful, diverse and well-preserved.

A photogrammetric image of the stern of the Ottoman-era ship showing coils of rope and a tiller with elaborate carvings. A lack of oxygen at the icy depths of the Black Sea left the wrecks relatively undisturbed.Credit Expedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

“It’s a great story,” said Shelley Wachsmann of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University. “We can expect some real contributions to our understanding of ancient trade routes.”

Goods traded on the Black Sea included grains, furs, horses, oils, cloth, wine and people. The Tatars turned Christians into slaves who were shipped to places like Cairo. For Europeans, the sea provided access to a northern branch of the Silk Road and imports of silk, satin, musk, perfumes, spices and jewels.

Marco Polo reportedly visited the Black Sea, and Italian merchant colonies dotted its shores. The profits were so enormous that, in the 13th and 14th centuries, Venice and Genoa fought a series of wars for control of the trade routes, including those of the Black Sea.

Brendan P. Foley, an archaeologist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on Cape Cod, Mass., said the good condition of the shipwrecks implied that many objects inside their hulls might also be intact.

“You might find books, parchment, written documents,” he said in an interview. “Who knows how much of this stuff was being transported? But now we have the possibility of finding out. It’s amazing.”

ROMANIA

RUSSIA

Bulgaria’s

Exclusive

Economic

Zone

BLACK SEA

BULGARIA

GEORGIA

GREECE

TURKEY

Athens

Experts said the success in Bulgarian waters might inspire other nations that control portions of the Black Sea to join the archaeological hunt. They are Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

Dr. Foley, who has explored a number of Black Sea wrecks, said the sea’s overall expanse undoubtedly held tens of thousands of lost ships. “Everything that sinks out there is going to be preserved,” he added. “They’re not going away.”

For ages, the Black Sea was a busy waterway that served the Balkans, the Eurasian steppes, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Greece. It long beckoned to archaeologists because they knew its deep waters lacked oxygen, a rarity for large bodies of water.

The great rivers of Eastern Europe — the Don, the Danube, the Dnieper — pour so much fresh water into the sea that a permanent layer forms over denser, salty water from the Mediterranean. As a result, oxygen from the atmosphere that mixes readily with fresh water never penetrates the inky depths.

In 1976, Willard Bascom, a pioneer of oceanography, in his book “Deep Water, Ancient Ships,” called the Black Sea unique among the world’s seas and a top candidate for exploration and discovery.

A photogrammetric image of a Byzantine wreck, dating perhaps to the ninth century. Superimposed is an image of one of the expedition’s tethered robots that photographed the lost ships.CreditExpedition and Education Foundation/Black Sea MAP

“One is tempted,” he wrote, “to begin searching there in spite of the huge expanse of bottom that would have to be inspected.”

In 2002, Robert D. Ballard, a discoverer of the sunken Titanic, led a Black Sea expedition that found a 2,400-year-old wreck laden with the clay storage jars of antiquity. One held remnants of a large fish that had been dried and cut into steaks, a popular food in ancient Greece.

The new team said it received exploratory permits from the Bulgarian ministries of culture and foreign affairs and limited its Black Sea hunts to parts of that nation’s exclusive economic zone, which covers thousands of square miles and runs up to roughly a mile deep.

Although the team’s official name is the Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project, or Black Sea MAP, it also hauls up sediments to hunt for clues to how the sea’s rising waters engulfed former land surfaces and human settlements.

Team members listed on its website include the Bulgarian National Institute of Archaeology, the Bulgarian Center for Underwater Archaeology, Sodertorn University in Sweden, and the Hellenic Center for Marine Research in Greece.

An illustration of what the research team believes the medieval ship found in the Black Sea looked like during its heyday. Credit Jon Adams/University of Southampton/Black Sea MAP

The project’s financial backer is the Expedition and Education Foundation, a charity registered in Britain whose benefactors want to remain anonymous, team members said. Dr. Adams of the University of Southampton, the team’s scientific leader, described it as catalyzing an academic-industry partnership on the largest project “of its type ever undertaken.”

Nothing is known publicly about the cost, presumably vast, of the Black Sea explorations, which are to run for three years. The endeavor began last year with a large Greek ship doing a preliminary survey. This year, the main vessel was the Stril Explorer, a British-flagged ship bearing a helicopter landing pad that usually services the undersea pipes and structures of the offshore oil industry.

Instead, archaeologists on the ship lowered its sophisticated robots to hunt for ancient shipwrecks and lost history.

In an interview, Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz of the University of Southampton said he was watching the monitors late one night in September when the undersea robot lit up a large wreck in a high state of preservation.

“I was speechless,” he recalled. “When I saw the ropes, I couldn’t believe my eyes. I still can’t.”

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Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz said the vessel hailed from the Ottoman Empire, whose capital was Constantinople (today Istanbul), and most likely went down sometime between the 17th and 19th centuries. He said the team nicknamed it “Flower of the Black Sea” because its deck bears ornate carvings, including two large posts with tops that form petals.

In an interview, Dr. Batchvarov of the University of Connecticut said most of the discoveries date to the Ottoman era. So it was that, late one night, during his shift, he assumed that a new wreck coming into view would be more of the same.

“Then I saw a quarter rudder,” he recalled, referring to a kind of large steering oar on a ship’s side. It implied the wreck was much older. Then another appeared. Quickly, he had the expedition’s leader, Dr. Adams, awakened.

“He came immediately,” Dr. Batchvarov recalled. “We looked at each other like two little boys in a candy shop.”

Dr. Batchvarov said the wreck — the medieval one found more than a half-mile down — was part of a class known by several names, including cocha and “round ship.” The latter name arose from how its ample girth let it carry more cargo and passengers than a warship.

Dr. Adams said the remarkable color images of the lost ships derived from a process known as photogrammetry. It combines photography with the careful measurement of distances between objects, letting a computer turn flat images into renderings that seem three-dimensional.

He said tethered robots shot the photographic images with video and still cameras. The distance information, he added, came from advanced sonars, which emit high-pitched sounds that echo through seawater. Their measurements, he said, can range down to less than a millimeter.

A news release from the University of Southampton refers to the images as “digital models.” Their creation, it said, “takes days even with the fastest computers.”

Filmmakers are profiling the Black Sea hunt in a documentary, according to the team’s website.

Another part of the project seeks to share the thrill of discovery with schools and educators. Students are to study on the Black Sea, the website says, or join university scientists in analyzing field samples “to uncover the mysteries of the past.”

The team has said little publicly on whether it plans to excavate the ships — a topic on which nations, academics and treasure hunters have long clashed. Bulgaria is a signatory to the 2001 United Nations convention that outlaws commercial trade in underwater cultural heritage and sets out guidelines on such things as artifact recovery and public display.

Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz said the team had so far discovered and photographed 44 shipwrecks, and that more beckoned.

Which was the most important? Dr. Adams said that for him, a student of early European shipbuilding, the centerpiece was the medieval round ship. He said it evoked Marco Polo and city states like Venice. The ship, he added, incorporated a number of innovations that let it do more than its predecessors had and paved the way for bigger things to come.

“It’s not too much,” he said, “to say that medieval Europe became modern with the help of ships like these.”

Lying Ted Cruz Is ‘Luke Warm Water’: There Is Nothing Christian About This Fraud

 

PLEASE READ THE BIBLICAL PASSAGE WRITTEN IN REVELATION 3:15-16

 

For those of you whom do not have a Bible available at the moment here are these two short verses spoken by Jesus to the Apostle John while he was a Roman prisoner on the island of Patmos in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

“I know your works, that you are neither cold nor hot: I wish that you were one or the other. So then because you are lukewarm and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit you out of my mouth”.  This was a message Jesus gave toward the Church that was at Laodicea (Asia-Minor, part of western Turkey today). This is information directed at a group of people as in this Church, yet it is no different from being pointed at a particular person like (lying Ted Cruz), or anyone else. Ted Cruz is on my personal bad side because I know that if a person is nothing but a hypocrite that they are personally hurting the image of God’s Church in the eyes of unknowing humans. No person can do as lying Ted Cruz does where he holds a Bible in one hand professing their ‘Christian beliefs’ and at the same time be someone who is filled with hate and has the forked tongue of a bald-faced liar (Washington politician). It is my belief and opinion that Christians whom are flocking to Lying Ted because he ‘says’ he is a Christian are in fact giving Christianity a horrible name. I have a question for you personally, this weekend when you step into the Church building you attend services at and you looked up and seen the Devil himself standing at the pulpit would you just sit down to hear what he had to say or would you do and about-face and run? Just because someone says they are a Christian does not mean that they even have a clue what they are talking about. Just because the Devil is at the pulpit that does not make him a Christian.