Earth’s magnetic field is acting up and geologists don’t know why Erratic motion of north magnetic pole

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE)

 

NEWS

Earth’s magnetic field is acting up and geologists don’t know why

Erratic motion of north magnetic pole forces experts to update model that aids global navigation.

Update, 9 January: The release of the World Magnetic Model has been postponed to 30 January due to the ongoing US government shutdown.

Something strange is going on at the top of the world. Earth’s north magnetic pole has been skittering away from Canada and towards Siberia, driven by liquid iron sloshing within the planet’s core. The magnetic pole is moving so quickly that it has forced the world’s geomagnetism experts into a rare move.

On 15 January, they are set to update the World Magnetic Model, which describes the planet’s magnetic field and underlies all modern navigation, from the systems that steer ships at sea to Google Maps on smartphones.

The most recent version of the model came out in 2015 and was supposed to last until 2020 — but the magnetic field is changing so rapidly that researchers have to fix the model now. “The error is increasing all the time,” says Arnaud Chulliat, a geomagnetist at the University of Colorado Boulder and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) National Centers for Environmental Information.

The problem lies partly with the moving pole and partly with other shifts deep within the planet. Liquid churning in Earth’s core generates most of the magnetic field, which varies over time as the deep flows change. In 2016, for instance, part of the magnetic field temporarily accelerated deep under northern South America and the eastern Pacific Ocean. Satellites such as the European Space Agency’s Swarm mission tracked the shift.

By early 2018, the World Magnetic Model was in trouble. Researchers from NOAA and the British Geological Survey in Edinburgh had been doing their annual check of how well the model was capturing all the variations in Earth’s magnetic field. They realized that it was so inaccurate that it was about to exceed the acceptable limit for navigational errors.

Wandering pole

“That was an interesting situation we found ourselves in,” says Chulliat. “What’s happening?” The answer is twofold, he reported last month at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Washington DC.

First, that 2016 geomagnetic pulse beneath South America came at the worst possible time, just after the 2015 update to the World Magnetic Model. This meant that the magnetic field had lurched just after the latest update, in ways that planners had not anticipated.

Source: World Data Center for Geomagnetism/Kyoto Univ.

Second, the motion of the north magnetic pole made the problem worse. The pole wanders in unpredictable ways that have fascinated explorers and scientists since James Clark Ross first measured it in 1831 in the Canadian Arctic. In the mid-1990s it picked up speed, from around 15 kilometres per year to around 55 kilometres per year. By 2001, it had entered the Arctic Ocean — where, in 2007, a team including Chulliat landed an aeroplane on the sea ice in an attempt to locate the pole.

In 2018, the pole crossed the International Date Line into the Eastern Hemisphere. It is currently making a beeline for Siberia.

The geometry of Earth’s magnetic field magnifies the model’s errors in places where the field is changing quickly, such as the North Pole. “The fact that the pole is going fast makes this region more prone to large errors,” says Chulliat.

To fix the World Magnetic Model, he and his colleagues fed it three years of recent data, which included the 2016 geomagnetic pulse. The new version should remain accurate, he says, until the next regularly scheduled update in 2020.

Core questions

In the meantime, scientists are working to understand why the magnetic field is changing so dramatically. Geomagnetic pulses, like the one that happened in 2016, might be traced back to ‘hydromagnetic’ waves arising from deep in the core1. And the fast motion of the north magnetic pole could be linked to a high-speed jet of liquid iron beneath Canada2.

The jet seems to be smearing out and weakening the magnetic field beneath Canada, Phil Livermore, a geomagnetist at the University of Leeds, UK, said at the American Geophysical Union meeting. And that means that Canada is essentially losing a magnetic tug-of-war with Siberia.

“The location of the north magnetic pole appears to be governed by two large-scale patches of magnetic field, one beneath Canada and one beneath Siberia,” Livermore says. “The Siberian patch is winning the competition.”

Which means that the world’s geomagnetists will have a lot to keep them busy for the foreseeable future.

Nature 565, 143-144 (2019)

doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-00007-1

Why China’s Moon Shot Matters

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF ‘FORTUNE’)

 

By CLAY CHANDLER and EAMON BARRETT

January 5, 2019

As 2019 dawns the separate preoccupations of the United States and China sound a bit like tracks from a Pink Floyd album: while Americans obsess over building “The Wall,” the Chinese have landed a robot on “The Dark Side of the Moon.”

It’s easy to be cynical about China’s moon shot. After years of effort and billions dollars in expense, Beijing has managed to boldly go, well, where America already went—50 years ago. China sent a probe, not an actual person. And, yes, it was both creepy and shameless that in hailing the moon landing, Wu Weiren, the chief designer of the Lunar Exploration Project, riffed off (or ripped off, depending on your point of view) the famous Neil Armstrong quote, declaring: “It’s a small step for the rover, but one giant leap for the Chinese nation.”

Still, China’s successful landing of the Change-e 4 on lunar terrain last Thursday was a significant scientific and technological achievement—one that can’t be dismissed as just another example of Chinese copy-catting. For one thing, China’s effort was the world’s first mission to the surface of the moon’s far side (which, as it turns out, isn’t actually all that dark) and therefore posed unique technical challenges. The far side can’t be seen from earth, and its surface has never been observed up close. Because the moon blocks direct communication from the far side, to transmit images from the probe back to earth, China had to build a separate relay satellite. Moreover, the far side’s surface is soft and powdery, a bit like snow, and so China’s lunar rover, called the Jade Rabbit 2, had to be specially constructed.

As the New York Times points out, the crater where Chinese probe landed is the oldest and deepest on the moon. It may hold clues to the moon’s origins, prove rich in minerals, and possibly serve as a “future refueling base for missions deeper into space.”

China is only the third country, alongside the U.S. and Russia, to send its own astronauts into space aboard its own rockets, and only the U.S. and China have the fiscal and technical wherewithal to mount significant long-term programs for exploring space. China last year launched more rockets into space than any other nation and plans another moon landing, the Chang-e 5, later this year. The country hopes to begin operating its third space station by 2022, and put astronauts on a lunar base sometime in the next decade. Beijing also has plans to to send probes to Mars and return samples of the Martian surface back to earth.

Notably space is yet another sphere where earth’s two technological powerhouses compete but don’t collaborate—and seem almost to inhabit different universes. As the BBC notes, U.S. counter-espionage legislation restricts NASA from working bilaterally with Chinese nationals without express permission from Congress.

More China news below.

Clay Chandler
@claychandler
[email protected]

Astronomers Detected Planets Outside Our Galaxy in 2018

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE ‘ASTRO JOURNAL’)

 

For The First Time Ever, Astronomers Detected Planets Outside Our Galaxy in 2018

MICHELLE STARR
23 DEC 2018

In an incredible world first, astrophysicists detected multiple planets in another galaxy earlier this year, ranging from masses as small as the Moon to ones as great as Jupiter.

Given how difficult it is to find exoplanets even within our Milky Way galaxy, this is no mean feat. Researchers at the University of Oklahoma achieved this in February thanks to clever use of gravitational microlensing.

The technique, first predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, has been used to find exoplanets within Milky Way, and it’s the only known way of finding the smallest and most distant planets, thousands of light-years from Earth.

As a planet orbits a star, the gravitational field of the system can bend the light of a distant star behind it.

We know what this looks like when it’s just two stars, so when a planet enters the mix, it creates a further disturbance in the light that reaches us – a recognisable signature for the planet.

So far, 53 exoplanets within the Milky Way have been detected using this method. To find planets farther afield, though, something a little bit more powerful than a single star was required.

Oklahoma University astronomers Xinyu Dai and Eduardo Guerras studied a quasar 6 billion light-years away called RX J1131-1231, one of the best gravitationally lensed quasars in the sky.

The gravitational field of a galaxy 3.8 billion light-years away between us and the quasar bends light in such a way that it creates four images of the quasar, which is an active supermassive black hole that’s extremely bright in X-ray, thanks to the intense heat of its accretion disc.

Using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory, the researchers found that there were peculiar line energy shifts in the quasar’s light that could only be explained by planets in the galaxy lensing the quasar.

It turned out to be around 2,000 unbound planets with masses ranging between the Moon and Jupiter, between the galaxy’s stars.

“We are very excited about this discovery. This is the first time anyone has discovered planets outside our galaxy,” Dai said.

Of course, we haven’t seen the planets directly, and are unlikely to in the lifetime of anyone alive today. But being able to detect them at all is an incredible testament to the power of microlensing, not to mention being evidence that there are planets in other galaxies.

Of course, common sense would dictate that planets are out there – but evidence is always nice.

“This is an example of how powerful the techniques of analysis of extragalactic microlensing can be,” said Guerras.

“This galaxy is located 3.8 billion light years away, and there is not the slightest chance of observing these planets directly, not even with the best telescope one can imagine in a science fiction scenario.

“However, we are able to study them, unveil their presence and even have an idea of their masses. This is very cool science.”

The research was published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Magnetic fields may be the key to black hole activity

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF PHYS.ORG AND NASA)

 

Magnetic fields may be the key to black hole activity

October 17, 2018, NASA
Magnetic fields may be the key to black hole activity
Artist’s conception of the core of Cygnus A, including the dusty donut-shaped surroundings, called a torus, and jets launching from its center. Magnetic fields are illustrated trapping the dust in the torus. These magnetic fields could be …more

Collimated jets provide astronomers with some of the most powerful evidence that a supermassive black hole lurks in the heart of most galaxies. Some of these black holes appear to be active, gobbling up material from their surroundings and launching jets at ultra-high speeds, while others are quiescent, even dormant. Why are some black holes feasting and others starving? Recent observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, are shedding light on this question.

SOFIA data indicate that magnetic fields are trapping and confining dust near the center of the active galaxy, Cygnus A, and feeding material onto the supermassive black hole at its center.

The , which attempts to explain the different properties of active galaxies, states that the core is surrounded by a donut-shaped dust cloud, called a torus. How this obscuring structure is created and sustained has never been clear, but these new results from SOFIA indicate that magnetic fields may be responsible for keeping the dust close enough to be devoured by the hungry black hole. In fact, one of the fundamental differences between active galaxies like Cygnus A and their less active cousins, like our own Milky Way, may be the presence or absence of a  around the black hole.

Although celestial magnetic fields are notoriously difficult to observe, astronomers have used polarized light—optical light from scattering and radio light from accelerating electrons—to study magnetic fields in galaxies. But optical wavelengths are too short and the radio wavelengths are too long to observe the torus directly. The infrared wavelengths observed by SOFIA are just right, allowing scientists, for the first time, to target and isolate the dusty torus.

Magnetic fields may be the key to black hole activity
Two images of Cygnus A layered over each other to show the galaxy’s jets glowing with radio radiation (shown in red). Quiescent galaxies, like our own Milky Way, do not have jets like this, which may be related to magnetic fields. The …more

SOFIA’s new instrument, the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera-plus (HAWC+), is especially sensitive to the infrared emission from aligned dust grains. This has proven to be a powerful technique to study magnetic fields and test a fundamental prediction of the unified model: the role of the dusty torus in the active-galaxy phenomena.

“It’s always exciting to discover something completely new,” noted Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez, a scientist at the SOFIA Science Center, and the lead author on the report of this new discovery. “These observations from HAWC+ are unique. They show us how infrared polarization can contribute to the study of galaxies.”

Recent observations of the heart of Cygnus A made with HAWC+ show infrared radiation dominated by a well-aligned dusty structure. Combining these results with archival data from the Herschel Space Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gran Telescopio Canarias, the research team found that this powerful active galaxy, with its iconic large-scale jets, is able to confine the obscuring torus that feeds the supermassive black hole using a strong .

The results of this study were published in the July 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Cygnus A is in the perfect location to learn about the role magnetic fields play in confining the dusty torus and channeling material onto the supermassive black hole because it is the closest and most powerful active galaxy. More observations of different types of galaxies are necessary to get the full picture of how magnetic fields affect the evolution of the environment surrounding . If, for example, HAWC+ reveals highly polarized  from the centers of active galaxies but not from quiescent , it would support the idea that magnetic fields regulate black hole feeding and reinforce astronomers’ confidence in the unified model of .

 Explore further: Black holes play hide-and-seek in low-luminosity radio galaxies

More information: Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez et al. The Highly Polarized Dusty Emission Core of Cygnus A, The Astrophysical Journal (2018). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aacff5

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-10-magnetic-fields-key-black-hole.html#jCp

(Theology Type Of Poem) What We See, But Also, What We Don’t See

What We See, But Also, What We Don’t See

 

We are all in the Womb, so what did we know and when

So, what did we see with our first memory, of anything

What did we know when we first remember seeing the Sun

How many folks have we seen through our heart, for a while

When did we each say, here I am, and remember that memory

 

There is always a time when we look right through our life, like a grind

We all walked past the Daily Hurdles life so kindly keep twirling at us

Did we notice and remember the people who slid in and out of our daily life

Stages of how you and I look now look in the memories of others cared about

Grades at every step, in deed we’re prodded and Rated, but what were we taught

 

Those around us who we know, how many of those folks don’t even recognize us

Yet how many wonderful people have we walked by because we didn’t see them

One side is irate cause the memories they see were far from being great ones

With Gray Hair we understand better what our senses of youth were blind to

When we understand that only by the Grace of G-d, have you or I, ever been

 

Blue Sky Science: What is gene editing?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE RACINE WISCONSIN JOURNAL TIMES)

 

Blue Sky Science: What is gene editing?

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Q What is gene editing?

— Ed Williams, associate fellow at Monsanto Co.

A Krishanu Saha, assistant professor, biomedical engineering and medical history and bioethics, University of Wisconsin-Madison:

Editing genes involves changing the sequence of letters in the DNA. Researchers like to edit genes so they can understand the function of them, particularly genes that relate to various types of disorders that physicians have seen in the clinic. We can use this information to generate new hypotheses of how genes influence diseases.

Historically, editing the genome has been difficult. Several editing technologies go into cells and essentially use “genetic scissors” to cut up the DNA. Once you introduce a cut into the genome, repair processes will try to repair that break. This repair often occurs in imprecise ways that could potentially cause errors and mutations.

Instead, you could take advantage of those repair processes to have the genome incorporate a foreign piece of DNA that has the letters that you want to be inserted.

Such editing has been done in human cells for the last 15-20 years using a set of proteins called nucleases. Nucleases are engineered proteins that cut DNA.

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Recently, the Cas9 nuclease, part of the CRISPR system, has really accelerated the pace of editing throughout biology and engineering.

To give you a frame of reference, about 10 years ago it cost about $50,000 to make only one precise cut in the genome. Attaining high precision was challenging: essentially finding a needle in a haystack, meaning editing one stretch of letters among 3 billion letters in the human genome. Understandably that was hard, and it took a lot of work to engineer the nucleases.

In the years since then, with the advent of the CRISPR system, a component called a guide RNA is used to attain precise editing. It’s easy to make the guide RNA, and this enables us to easily go after multiple parts of the genome at once. These components can be made very quickly on the order of a few dollars rather than thousands of dollars, making the technology more accessible for research.

Blue Sky Science is a collaboration of the Wisconsin State Journal and the Morgridge Institute for Research.

U.S. Government Report: Climate Change Will Shrink US Economy And Kill Thousands

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CNN)

 

Climate change will shrink US economy and kill thousands, government report warns

(CNN)new US government report delivers a dire warning about climate change and its devastating impacts, saying the economy could lose hundreds of billions of dollars — or, in the worst-case scenario, more than 10% of its GDP — by the end of the century.

The federally mandated study was supposed to come out in December but was released by the Trump administration on Friday, at a time when many Americans are on a long holiday weekend, distracted by family and shopping.
David Easterling, director of the Technical Support Unit at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, emphasized that there was “no external interference in the report’s development.” He added that the climate change the Earth is experiencing is unlike any other.
“The global average temperature is much higher and is rising more rapidly than anything modern civilization has experienced, and this warming trend can only be explained by human activities,” Easterling said.
Coming from the US Global Change Research Program, a team of 13 federal agencies, the Fourth National Climate Assessment was put together with the help of 1,000 people, including 300 leading scientists, roughly half from outside the government.
It’s the second of two volumes. The first, released in November 2017, concluded that there is “no convincing alternative explanation” for the changing climate other than “human activities, especially emissions of greenhouse gases.”
The report’s findings run counter to President Donald Trump’s consistent message that climate change is a hoax.
On Wednesday, Trump tweeted, “Whatever happened to Global Warming?” as some Americans faced the coldest Thanksgiving in over a century.
But the science explained in these and other federal government reports is clear: Climate change is not disproved by the extreme weather of one day or a week; it’s demonstrated by long-term trends. Humans are living with the warmest temperatures in modern history. Even if the best-case scenario were to happen and greenhouse gas emissions were to drop to nothing, the world is on track to warm 1.1 degrees Fahrenheit.
As of now, not a single G20 country is meeting climate targets, research shows.
Without significant reductions in greenhouse emissions, the annual average global temperature could increase 9 degrees Fahrenheit (5 Celsius) or more by the end of this century, compared with preindustrial temperatures, the report says.

The expense

The costs of climate change could reach hundreds of billions of dollars annually, according to the report. The Southeast alone will probably lose over a half a billion labor hours by 2100 due to extreme heat.
Farmers will face extremely tough times. The quality and quantity of their crops will decline across the country due to higher temperatures, drought and flooding. In parts of the Midwest, farms will be able to produce less than 75% of the corn they produce today, and the southern part of the region could lose more than 25% of its soybean yield.
Heat stress could cause average dairy production to fall between 0.60% and 1.35% over the next 12 years — having already cost the industry $1.2 billion from heat stress in 2010.
When it comes to shellfish there will be a $230 million loss by the end of the century due to ocean acidification, which is already killing off shellfish and corals. Red tides, or algae bloom that deplete oxygen in the water and can kill sea life — like those that triggered a state of emergency in Florida in August — will become more frequent.

Impacts on our health

Higher temperatures will also kill more people, the report says. The Midwest alone, which is predicted to have the largest increase in extreme temperature, will see an additional 2,000 premature deaths per year by 2090.
There will be more mosquito- and tick borne diseases like Zika, dengue and chikungunya. West Nile cases are expected to more than double by 2050 due to increasing temperatures.
Expect asthma and allergies to be worse due to climate change.
No one’s health is immune from climate change, the report concludes. People will be exposed to more foodborne and waterborne diseases. Particularly vulnerable to higher temperatures in the summer, children, the elderly, the poor and communities of color will be at a much greater risk for illness and death.

Heat and flooding

Wildfire seasons — already longer and more destructive than before — could burn up to six times more forest area annually by 2050 in parts of the United States. Burned areas in Southwestern California alone could double by 2050.
Dependable and safe water for the Hawaii, the Caribbean and others are threatened by these rising temperatures.
Along the US coasts, public infrastructure and $1 trillion in national wealth held in real estate are threatened by rising sea levels, flooding and storm surges.
Energy systems will be taxed, meaning more blackouts and power failures, and the potential loss in some sectors could reach hundreds of billions of dollars per year by the end of the century, the report said.
The number of days over 100 degrees Fahrenheit will multiply; Chicago, where these days are rare, could start to resemble Phoenix or Las Vegas, with up to two months worth of these scorching-hot days.
Sea levels have already gone up 7 to 8 inches since 1900. Almost half that rise has been since 1993, a rate of rise greater than during any century in the past 2,800 years. Some countries are already seeing land underwater.
By midcentury, it’s likely that the Arctic will lose all sea ice in late summer, and that could lead to more permafrost thaw, according to the report. As the permafrost thaws, more carbon dioxide and methane would be released, amplifying human-induced warming, “possibly significantly.”

What can be done

The report was created to inform policy-makers and makes no specific recommendations on how to remedy the problem. However, it suggests that if the United States immediately reduced its fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, it could save thousands of lives and generate billions of dollars in benefits for the country.
The Defense Department is trying to understand what risk climate change poses to security. But the Trump administration has signaled that the country will pull out of international initiatives like the Paris climate accord, aimed at lowering global temperatures, claiming that these treaties have been unfair for the US economy.
A report from the UN in October urged all governments to take “rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society” to avoid disaster from climate change. That report predicted that the Earth will reach the crucial threshold of 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels by as early as 2030. It also suggested the world faces a risk of extreme drought, wildfires, floods and food shortages for hundreds of millions of people.

Time for action

Reactions to the new report have been strong across the scientific community.
“If we’re going to run this country like a business, it’s time to address climate as the threat multiplier we know it is before more lives are lost,” said Robert Bullard, an environmental scientist at Texas Southern University.
“In Houston, communities of color have endured back to back major weather events without the acknowledgment from Washington that climate change is the cause. We’ve known for years that it’s true and it’s important to our organizing and our local policy efforts that information like this is not only considered, but believed and acted upon.”
Scientists who have been raising the alarm about the negative consequences of climate change for years welcomed the findings.
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“The findings in the Trump administration’s NCA report show how the health and daily lives of Americans are becoming more and more interrupted because of climate change,” said Beverly Wright, founding director of the Deep South Center for Environmental Justice and a professor at Dillard University. “We challenge the administration to finally begin using this information to rebuild and strengthen the communities in the direct path of the atrocities wrought by the fossil fuel industry and decades of poor policies that have neglected our concerns. The science is undeniable, let’s fix it.”

High Times Magazine: I have well over a decade of growing the absolute finest cannabis

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF HIGH TIMES MAGAZINE)

 

DON’T JUST TAKE OUR WORD FOR IT, READ WHAT A MASTER BREEDER HAS TO SAY ABOUT SPECTRUM KING LED

Article by Mr. Spliff of Cannabis

I have well over a decade of growing the absolute finest cannabis.

I personally consume a lot of cannabis as well. I know cannabis very well. I know the industry and its struggles very well. Cannabis is my life. I have used every kind of plant food, grown in every kind of medium, run every size or room, tried every trade secret and use every available form of lighting technology.

There are so many critical variables when operating a successful garden. As that garden becomes the centerpiece of a growing business it is extremely important to control these variables. Some variables outweigh others, but it is a perfectly functioning system we wish to achieve.

In my experience the most critical variable is lighting. Everything in gardening is about maximizing photosynthesis. environment, plant food, medium and so many other like variables are designed to maximize photosynthesis. As this is the case it is imperative to have a lighting program that really drives the plants to their full potential.

I have used many different forms of indoor lighting. Metal Halide and HPS HID lighting, both single ended lamps and double ended lamps. CHM/LEC 315w lamps in various reflector setups. Many forms of fluorescent and induction lighting. I have used many different builds of LED lighting as well. Companies make claims left and right about better power usage or cooler operating temps or cheaper initial costs and sometimes even government rebates/reimbursement… at the end of the day it comes down to 1 thing and 1 thing alone. Performance.

The SPECTRUM KING Low Pro Veg LED is hands down the most effective and high-performance lighting system I have ever used. It is the way the plants react to the spectrum. Their increased rate of growth and structure of that growth. The way the light drives the plants to build a massive and dense root system. Absolutely perfect and luscious plant tissue. Huge stalks and stems that developed quickly.

Most modern lighting systems are no bigger than a shoe box. This creates a centralized source of light that leaves a lot to be desired when lighting larger spaces of plants. This can lead to non-uniform structure in the plants. The SPECTRUM KING Low Pro Veg is a 4’ x 4’ lighting deck that is so powerful, so consistent and uniform in its broadcast of light. This translates directly to the uniformity and consistency of the plants. I have never seen a lighting system that delivers like Low Pro Veg. I have seen at least a 20% increased growth rate, better plant structure and stronger plant presence with the Low Pro Veg than any other lighting system. The Low Pro Veg being a dimmable unit allows vegetative plants to stay in the same space for the term of their cycle as you can dim the output as the plants get closer to the lighting unit keeping them from light toxicity and fouled plant tissue and form. These lighting fixtures also require little to no environmental control to maintain ideal temperatures in the grow space. The SPECTRUM KING Low Pro Veg LED has so many advantages. Truly professional grade lighting for the modern indoor Commercial/Recreational/Medical cultivator!

Product shot of the SPECTRUM KING Low Pro Veg LED
If a garden is the business and LIGHT drives the garden then it is of the highest importance that your lighting equipment is powerful and consistent. In this ever-growing industry the only businesses that will survive is those with a consistent result and powerful presence. The SPECTRUM KING Low Pro Veg LED is the only light I recommend for vegetative cycle lighting.

It should be noted that I have observed 100+ strains/varieties under the Low Pro Veg. Exceptional results across the board.

Stunning Pinwheel Nebula Is a Cosmic Cataclysm in the Making

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF GIZOMODO SCIENCE SITE)

 

Stunning Pinwheel Nebula Is a Cosmic Cataclysm in the Making

Apep, the first Wolf-Rayet star system to be discovered in the Milky Way.
Image: ESO/Callingham et al.

This image of a dusty, gas-rich nebula looks pretty, but appearances can be deceiving. Known as a Wolf-Rayet star system, it’s poised to unleash a catastrophic gamma-ray burst when it finally goes supernova. What’s remarkable about this particular Wolf-Rayet system, however, is that it’s the first to be discovered in our own galaxy. Cue the ominous music…

This Wolf-Rayet star system is formally known as 2XMM J160050.7-514245, but to the researchers who recently investigated this enigmatic object, it’s simply “Apep”—an exotic object named for the serpentine ancient Egyptian god of chaos. In a press release, Joseph Callingham, the lead author of the new study and an astronomer at the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), said “it’s the first such system to be discovered in our own galaxy”—a system he never expected to find “in our own backyard.” The details of this research were published today in Nature Astronomy.

Indeed, astronomers have observed Wolf-Rayet stars before, but only in other galaxies. These massive star systems are on the verge of entering into their death throes, at which time they’ll generate a type of supernova that emits an extremely powerful and narrow jet of plasma—the dreaded gamma-ray burst.

Apep is one such gamma-ray progenitor system, featuring a massive triple star system at its core—a binary pair and a lone star—and vast spiral arms composed of gas and dust. The system is located around 8,000 light-years from Earth, which is uncomfortably close given its explosive potential.

“This was a very fun project to do in some ways, in the sense that Joe found this object and first showed it to me in 2012 when we were officemates as undergrads in Sydney—and it took us six years to gather all the data to reveal this surprising story,” Benjamin Pope, a NASA Sagan fellow at New York University’s Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics and a co-author of the new study, told Gizmodo. “Sometimes science is slow! But I remember when last year, the day before my PhD defense in Oxford, he was visiting and showed me the picture of the Apep spiral—I literally gasped, it was so shocking. There’s really nothing quite like this.”

Using the VISIR mid-infrared camera on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, Pope, Callingham, and their colleagues measured the velocity of the dust within the spiral arms. At this end-stage of their brief life cycle (these systems only last a few hundred thousand years—a blink of the eye in cosmological terms), stars within Wolf-Rayet systems spin rapidly, producing stellar winds that move at horrendous speeds. These winds carry significant portions of stellar material into space, and they’re responsible for forming the majestic plumes of dust particles. In the case of Apep, its spiral arms measure several light-years across.

By measuring the rotational speeds within this nebula, the researchers concluded that at least one of the three stars within the system is spinning fast enough such that it’ll trigger a long-duration gamma-ray burst when it finally explodes as supernova (the exact timing is still impossible to predict). The speed of gas within the nebula was clocked at 12 million kilometers per hour, but the dust is moving at “just” 570 million kilometers per hour. The researchers say this discrepancy is indicative of a star approaching near-critical rotation.

“Apep’s dust pinwheel moves much slower than the wind in the system,” said Callingham. “One way this can occur is if one of the massive stars is rotating so quickly that it is nearly tearing itself apart. Such a rotation means that when it runs out of fuel and begins to explode as a supernova, it will collapse at the poles before the equator, producing a gamma-ray burst.”

The significance of this finding, said Pope, is that nobody had observed rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet systems in our galaxy before. Moreover, many astronomers assumed these objects couldn’t even exist in a galaxy like ours; the Milky Way is old and metal-rich, containing an abundance of heavy stars that should spin down quickly. The new result suggests our understanding of how massive stars die is still incomplete.

“Wolf-Rayet star systems are thought to be the progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts, so if there’s one in our galaxy that’s an exciting find,” Pope told Gizmodo. “Even if not—something deeply weird is happening to this star system and this is the best explanation we have.”

Artist’s impression of a gamma-ray burst.
Image: NASA/Dana Berry/Skyworks Digital

As noted, gamma-ray bursts are among the most powerful explosions known to astronomers. Lasting from between two seconds and a few hours, long-duration gamma-ray bursts release as much energy as the Sun does over the course of its entire lifetime. Disturbingly, some scientists theorize that the Ordovician-Silurian extinction—a mass extinction event that happened on Earth some 440 million years ago—was caused by a gamma-ray burst within our own galaxy. Physicist Adrian Melott from the University of Kansas speculates that a “dangerously near GRB should occur on average two or more times per billion years.”

Pope said it would be “pretty bad” if one were to go off nearby, but he’s not particularly concerned.

“In terms of why we have nothing to worry about, the best I can offer is that it’s highly uncertain whether Apep will go off as a gamma-ray burst at all, and if it does, it is unlikely to be in the very near future.”

As another point of encouragement, gamma-ray bursters are highly directional, spewing their concentrated, high-energy rays in a specific direction. So for Apep to pose a threat, it would not only have to go supernova, it would also have to be pointed in our general direction.

Regardless, there’s nothing we can really do about it except to learn more about Wolf-Rayet systems. It might also be useful to speak the ancient Egyptian incantation to rid the world of Apep’s destructive powers:

Spitting upon Apep, Defiling Apep with the left foot, Taking a lance to smite Apep,Fettering Apep, Taking a knife to smite Apep, Putting fire upon Apep…

[Nature Astronomy]

Newly revealed letter shows a fearful Einstein long before Nazis’ rise

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE TIMES OF ISRAEL)

 

Newly revealed letter shows a fearful Einstein long before Nazis’ rise

Following assassination of Jewish friend and German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau, celebrated physicist warned of ‘dark times brewing’

This June, 1954, file photo shows renowned physicist Albert Einstein in Princeton, N.J. More than a decade before the Nazis seized power in Germany, Albert Einstein was on the run and already fearful for his country’s future, according to a newly revealed handwritten letter. (AP Photo, File)

This June, 1954, file photo shows renowned physicist Albert Einstein in Princeton, N.J. More than a decade before the Nazis seized power in Germany, Albert Einstein was on the run and already fearful for his country’s future, according to a newly revealed handwritten letter. (AP Photo, File)

JERUSALEM (AP) — More than a decade before the Nazis seized power in Germany, Albert Einstein was on the run and already fearful for his country’s future, according to a newly revealed handwritten letter.

His longtime friend and fellow Jew, German Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau, had just been assassinated by right-wing extremists and police had warned the noted physicist that his life could be in danger too.

So Einstein fled Berlin and went into hiding in northern Germany. It was during this hiatus that he penned a handwritten letter to his beloved younger sister, Maja, warning of the dangers of growing nationalism and anti-Semitism years before the Nazis ultimately rose to power, forcing Einstein to flee his native Germany for good.

“Out here, nobody knows where I am, and I’m believed to be missing,” he wrote in August 1922. “Here are brewing economically and politically dark times, so I’m happy to be able to get away from everything.”

The previously unknown letter, brought forward by an anonymous collector, is set to go on auction next week in Jerusalem with an opening asking price of $12,000.

As the most influential scientist of the 20th century, Einstein’s life and writings have been thoroughly researched. The Hebrew University in Jerusalem, of which Einstein was a founder, houses the world’s largest collection of Einstein material. Together with the California Institute of Technology it runs the Einstein Papers Project. Individual auctions of his personal letters have brought in substantial sums in recent years.

This undated photo released by the Kedem Auction House, shows a copy of a 1922 letter Albert Einstein wrote to his beloved younger sister, Maja. The previously unknown letter, brought forward by an anonymous collector, is set to go on auction next week in Jerusalem with an opening asking price of $12,000. In the handwritten letter, Einstein expressed fears of anti-Semitism long before Nazis’ rise. (Kedem Auction House via AP)

The 1922 letter shows he was concerned about Germany’s future a full year before the Nazis even attempted their first coup — the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch to seize power in Bavaria.

“This letter reveals to us the thoughts that were running through Einstein’s mind and heart at a very preliminary stage of Nazi terror,” said Meron Eren, co-owner of the Kedem Auction House in Jerusalem, which obtained the letter and offered The Associated Press a glimpse before the public sale. “The relationship between Albert and Maja was very special and close, which adds another dimension to Einstein the man and greater authenticity to his writings.”

The letter, which bears no return address, is presumed to have been written while he was staying in the port city of Kiel before embarking on a lengthy speaking tour across Asia.

“I’m doing pretty well, despite all the anti-Semites among the German colleagues. I’m very reclusive here, without noise and without unpleasant feelings, and am earning my money mainly independent of the state, so that I’m really a free man,” he wrote. “You see, I am about to become some kind of itinerant preacher. That is, firstly, pleasant and, secondly, necessary.”

Addressing his sister’s concerns, Einstein writes: “Don’t worry about me, I myself don’t worry either, even if it’s not quite kosher, people are very upset. In Italy, it seems to be at least as bad.”

Later in 1922, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics.

This undated file photo shows famed physicist Albert Einstein (AP Photo, File)

Ze’ev Rosenkrantz, the assistant director of the Einstein Papers Project at Caltech, said the letter wasn’t the first time Einstein warned about German anti-Semitism, but it captured his state of mind at this important junction after Rathenau’s killing and the “internal exile” he imposed on himself shortly after it.

“Einstein’s initial reaction was one of panic and a desire to leave Germany for good. Within a week, he had changed his mind,” he said. “The letter reveals a mindset rather typical of Einstein in which he claims to be impervious to external pressures. One reason may be to assuage his sister’s concerns. Another is that he didn’t like to admit that he was stressed about external factors.”

When the Nazis came to power and began enacting legislation against Jews, they also aimed to purge Jewish scientists. The Nazis dismissed Einstein’s groundbreaking work, including his Law of Relativity, as “Jewish Physics.”

Einstein renounced his German citizenship in 1933 after Hitler became chancellor. The physicist settled in the United States, where he would remain until his death in 1955.

Einstein declined an invitation to serve as the first president of the newly established state of Israel but left behind his literary estate and personal papers to the Hebrew University.

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