Research Finds Gigantic Masses in Earth’s Mantle Untouched for More Than 4 Billion Years

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OD SCITECHDAILY)

 

Research Finds Gigantic Masses in Earth’s Mantle Untouched for More Than 4 Billion Years

Earth's Layers

This image shows the divisions between Earth’s layers. The ancient, continent-sized rock regions encircle the liquid outer core. Credit: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Ancient, distinct, continent-sized regions of rocks, isolated since before the collision that created the Moon 4.5 billion years ago, exist hundreds of miles below the Earth’s crust, offering a window into the building blocks of our planet, according to new research.

The new study in the AGU Journal Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems used models to trace the location and origin of volcanic rock samples found throughout the world back to two solid continents in the deep mantle. The new research suggests the specific giant rock regions have existed for 4.5 billion years, since Earth’s beginning.

Previously, scientists theorized that separated continents in the deep mantle came from subducted oceanic plates. But the new study indicates these distinct regions may have been formed from an ancient magma ocean that solidified during the beginning of Earth’s formation and may have survived the massive Moon-creating impact.

Determining the masses’ origin reveals more details about their evolution and composition, as well as clues about primordial Earth’s history in the early Solar System, according to the study’s authors.

It’s amazing that these regions have survived most of Earth’s volcanic history relatively untouched, said Curtis Williams, a geologist at the University of California, Davis, in Davis, California and lead author of the study.

Looking inward

The mantle is a layer of rock, stretching 2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles) down inside the Earth. Earth’s molten, liquid, metallic core lies beneath the mantle. The core-mantle boundary is where the solid mantle meets the metallic liquid core.

Scientists knew from past seismic imaging studies that two individual rock bodies existed near the core-mantle boundary. One solid rock body is under Africa and the other is under the Pacific Ocean.

Seismic waves, the vibrations produced by earthquakes, move differently through these masses than the rest of the mantle, suggesting they have distinct physical properties from the surrounding mantle. But geologists couldn’t determine whether seismic waves moved differently through the core-mantle continents because of differences in their temperature, mineral composition or density, or some combination of these properties. That meant they could only hypothesize about the separate rocky masses’ origin and history.

“We had all of these geochemical measurements from Earth’s surface, but we didn’t know how to relate these geochemical measurements to regions of Earth’s interior. We had all of these geophysical images of the Earth’s interior, but we didn’t know how to relate that to the geochemistry at Earth’s surface,” Williams said.

Primitive material and plumes

Williams and his colleagues wanted to determine the distinct masses’ origin and evolution to learn more about Earth’s composition and past. To do this, they needed to be able to identify samples at Earth’s surface with higher concentrations of primitive material and then trace those samples back to their origins.

Scientists often take rock samples from volcanic regions like Hawaii and Iceland, where deep mantle plumes, or columns of extremely hot rock, rise from the areas near the core, melt in the shallow mantle and emerge far from tectonic fault lines. These samples are made of igneous rock created from cooling lava. The study’s authors used an existing database of samples and also collected new samples from volcanically active areas like the Balleny Islands in Antarctica.

Geologists can measure specific isotopes in igneous rocks to learn more about the origin and evolution of the Earth. Some isotopes, like Helium-3, are primordial, meaning they were created during the Big Bang. Rocks closer to Earth’s crust have less of the isotope than rocks deeper underground that were never exposed to air. Samples with more Helium-3 are thought to come from more primitive rocks in the mantle.

The researchers found some of the samples they studied had more Helium-3, indicating they may have come from primitive rocks deep in the Earth’s mantle.

The researchers then used a new model to trace how these primitive samples could have gotten to the Earth’s surface from the mantle. Geological models assume plumes rise vertically from deep within the mantle to the Earth’s surface. But plumes can move off course, deflected, due to various reasons. The new model took into account this plume deflection, allowing the study’s authors to trace the samples back to the two giant masses near the core-mantle boundary.

The combination of the isotope information and the new model allowed the researchers to determine the composition of the two giant masses and theorize how they may have formed.

Understanding the composition of specific rock masses near the core-mantle boundary helps geologists conceptualize ancient Earth-shaping processes that led to the modern-day mantle, according to the study’s authors.

“It’s a more robust framework to try and answer these questions in terms of not making these assumptions of vertically rising material but rather to take into account how much deflection these plumes have seen,” Williams said.

Reference: “Primitive Helium Is Sourced From Seismically Slow Regions in the Lowermost Mantle” by C. D. Williams, S. Mukhopadhyay, M. L. Rudolph and B. Romanowicz, 31 July 2019, Journal Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

When did the dinosaurs roam Earth?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

Science

When did the dinosaurs roam Earth?

The age of the dinosaurs has fascinated the modern imagination for centuries. Often, we are tempted to think of the era as an ancient time when all our favorite dinosaurs squared off against one another in a battle of survival.

However, dinosaurs ruled Earth for a period spanning hundreds of millions of years, during which world-ending events occurred, and the planet changed in ways that are almost difficult to imagine. Here is a guide to the different time periods during which the dinosaurs roamed the planet.

Mesozoic Era

Illustration of dinosaurs during the Mesozoic Era
Credit: CoreyFord/ iStock

The overall time period in which the dinosaurs lived was known as the Mesozoic Era. The Mesozoic Era lasted 180 million years, from 248 million years ago to 65 million years ago. It was preceded by the Paleozoic era, during which life began to take shape, and was followed by the Cenozoic Era, in which we live.

The Mesozoic Era is divided into three distinct time periods:

  • The Triassic Period – 248 million to 206 million years ago
  • The Jurassic Period – 206 million to 146 million years ago
  • The Cretaceous Period – 146 million to 65 million years ago

During the Mesozoic Era, mountains rose, climates shifted, and life reshaped itself multiple times.

Triassic period

Fossil of a pterosaur
Credit: AKKHARAT JARUSILAWONG/ Shutterstock

The first period of the Mesozoic era was the Triassic period. During this time, all the continents were still connected in one giant super continent, known as Pangaea. Temperatures were warmer and there were no polar ice caps.

The oceans teemed with life during this period. Turtles and fish were common, and the corals developed alongside mollusks and ammonites. Large marine reptiles were present as well, such as the plesiosaurus and ichthyosaurus.

On land, early dinosaurs and mammals evolved, and the first flying reptiles, the pterosaurs, took to the skies. There were no flowering plants or grass present during the Triassic period, but cycads, ferns and ginkgoes grew near water sources such as rivers or streams. Small forests of conifers grew in some parts of Pangaea, but for the most part, inland areas were arid deserts with little or no plant or animal life.

Jurassic period

Illustration of Brachiosaurs
Credit: Orla/ iStock

The Triassic period came to an end with a mass extinction that wiped out over 90 percent of the species on Earth. The animals that survived this event began to repopulate the planet and usher in the Jurassic period.

The Jurassic period was marked by the slow break-up of Pangaea into two smaller landmasses known as Laurasia and Gondwana. When the supercontinent split, new mountains arose in the sea, pushing the sea level up and creating a much wetter, more humid environment.

Ferns and mosses covered much of the ground while the small coniferous forest of the Triassic period expanded to cover wide swaths of the two continents.

Giant dinosaurs ruled the land, the largest of which was the plant-eating Brachiosaurs, which scientists believe could grow to be 80 feet long and 50 feet tall. These large herbivores were hunted by massive carnivores such as the Allosaurus.

The Jurassic period also saw the first birds diverge from the reptile family, and the Archaeopteryx flew above these massive dinosaurs.

Cretaceous period

Skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus Rex
Credit: DavidHCoder/ iStock

During the Cretaceous period, the continents continued to drift apart and end in the locations that we know them today. The climate became both wetter and cooler, resulting in the emergence of the polar ice caps and setting the stage for the glaciers that covered large parts of North America, Europe, and Asia in the following era.

The drifting continents resulted in increased specialization and many new types of dinosaurs. Triceratops and Iguanodon traveled in herds, feasting on the ancestors of the flowers, herbs and broad-leaved trees that populate Earth today.

These massive plant-eating animals were hunted by the famous Tyrannosaurus Rex. Snakes first developed during this time period, as well as crocodiles and turtles. Insects and pterosaurs flew in the air, and the first mammals scurried across the ground.

Despite the proliferation of life during this period, another mass extinction followed a natural disaster at the end of the Cretaceous period. While both reptiles and mammals survived in small numbers, the age of the dinosaurs came to an end.

What’s next?

Earth as viewed from space
Credit: dem10/ iStock

In light of this vast history, do you ever wonder what lies ahead for both Earth and us?

Revelation Chapter #3

Revelation Chapter #3

 

With this letter today I would like for us to discuss the third chapter of the Book of Revelation. Chapter #3 is a lot like chapter #2 was in that the main subject matter is three of the old churches in Asia Minor. In Rev. 22:10 John was told “do not seal the sayings of the Prophecy’s of this Book: for the time is at hand.”  Those that say the Book of Revelation is just a jumble of signs and symbols and is not meant to be understood is directly contradicting the Book and The Lord. The Lord Jesus dictated this information to the Apostle John. This Book is not a closed book that is suppose to be beyond human understanding. This Book is like all Scripture in that for you to really understand it you must read it, see it and understand it through the eyes of the Holy Spirit who indwells us. This is because it is He, The Holy Spirit who is the Author of all Scripture.

 

If a person only sees Scripture through the eyes of the flesh of this world then they will never fully see nor understand what the Truth is. Revelation does not begin anything. Revelation concludes those things which began within the other 65 Books of the Bible. If a person has not studied the rest of the Bible first then Revelation will be very difficult for a person to understand. This Book has 22 chapters and 404 verses. Of these 404 verses 278 of them contain references to the Old Testament.

 

After Chapter #3 the Church is not mentioned again within Revelation. This is because the Church which is the “Bride of Christ” is in Heaven with Him. Now, if you would, lets study what Jesus had to say about the other three Churches of the seven listed, these Churches were in Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea. First let us look at the Lord’s words to the Church in Sardis which is in modern day Greece. “To the Angel of the Church in Sardis write: these things saith He that has the seven Spirits of God and the Seven Stars. I know your works, that you have a name that you are alive, but you are really dead. Be watchful and strengthen the things that you still have that are about to die. For I have not found your works complete before God. Remember therefore how that you received and heard, hold fast to that, and repent. For if you do not pay attention, I will come unto you as a thief in the night, and you shall not know what hour I will come unto you. There are a few among you even there in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white: for they are worthy. He that overcomes this world shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out their name out of The Book Of Life, but I will confess their name before My Father and before His Angels. He that has an ear let him hear what the Spirit is saying to the Churches.”

 

Friends, as you can see, there is not great mystery here in what The Lord is saying to the people of the Church at Sardis. He points out their good points and their bad points. On the things they are doing good on The Lord tells them to continue. But, on the things they are doing wrong in their lives on He tells them to correct those ways of He will remove their names from the Book of Life. My friends, if our name is not found in the Book of Life at our Judgement we will be cast into Hell at that time. How can things possibly be more plain than what The Lord has laid our to all of us in His own words?

 

Now let us go onto The Lords letter to the Church at Philadelphia. For those of you who are new to this information this letter is not to the people who live in southeast Pennsylvania, it was addressed to a Church in what is now western Turkey. “To the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia write; these things says He that is Holy, He that is True, He that has the Key of David. He that opens and no man can shut. He that shuts and no man can open. I know your works: behold, I have set before you and open door, and no man can shut it. For you have a little power and have obeyed my word and you have not denied My Name. Behold, I will make them of the Synagogue of Satan which say they are Jews and are not, for they lie. Behold I will make them come and worship before your feet. Then they will realize that I have loved you. Because you have kept the word of My patience, I will also keep you from the hour of temptation which shall come upon the whole world, to try them which dwell upon the Earth. Behold, I shall come quickly. Hold fast to that which you have so that no man can take your Crown. To he that overcomes I will make him a pillar in the Temple of God, he shall no more go out, and I will write upon him The Name of God. And the name of the City of God which is the New Jerusalem which shall down out of Heaven from God and I will write upon him My new name for him. He that has an ear, let him hear what The Spirit is saying to the Churches.”

 

Philadelphia did not receive the condemnation that most of the seven Churches received because most of what they were doing was correct in God’s Eyes. Philadelphia was a Church that was getting out the Word of God. They were not just sitting on their hands and only giving lip service to God. Yet Jesus did still warn them about being complacent and not continuing in His Word. As you can see, in these warnings just as within many other places of Scripture it is possible to fall away from doing God’s Work and lose your Crown. Friends, there is no such thing as once saved always saved, friends please do not let the Devil fool you by such false teachings.

 

Now lets go to The Lord’s letter to the seventh Church of the seven listed, the last message was to the Church in Laodicea. “To the Angel of the Church in Laodicea write; these things saith The Amen, The Faithful and the True Witness, the beginning of the Creation of God. I know your works, that they are neither cold nor hot: because they are neither cold nor hot I will vomit you out of My mouth. Because you say, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing. You do not know that you are really wretched and miserable and poor and blind and naked. I advise you to buy from Me gold that is tried in the fire so that you may be rich and have white raiment so that you may be clothed so that the shame of your nakedness does not appear, and anoint your eyes with eye salve so that you might see. As many as I love I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore and repent. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If any man hears My Voice and opens the door I will come in to him and will eat with him and he with Me. To him that overcomes this world I will grant him to sit with Me in My Throne, even as I also overcame and have set down with My Father in His Throne. He that has an ear, let him hear what The Spirit is saying to the Churches.”

 

Well friends, that is it for chapter #3, as you can see this is not rocket science or brain surgery, it is quite possible for all of us to understand. Lord willing in the next day or two I will get my notes together on Chapter #4 and get it written up. I hope that you will join me then for that read as well. Good evening and I pray that God will bless and keep you all safe until we meet again.

The Book Of Revelation: Chapter #1

The Book Of Revelation: Chapter #1

The Book of Revelation is the Book of the end of God’s plan for the Earth and all of it’s people. Revelation is a Book of Prophesy.  This book was written by the Apostle John in about the year 95 A.D. while he was in exile on the Isle of Patmos in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea by the Roman Government. This book is the Revelation of Jesus Christ. The material came from Jesus Christ and the main character of it’s contents is Jesus Christ.

 

The style, smoothness and plan of Revelation shows us plainly that it was written by one Author. Four times within this Book he is named as John. John received this Apocalyptic Subject matter for this Book from a series of startling visions. This Book unlike the other four Books in the New Testament that he wrote John did not have a Scribe to smooth out his Greek so there are some people on this reality alone who have tried to discredit this material.  Reality is such attacks make no sense at all. It is easy to understand why the Devil and His followers don’t like this Book above all of the Books of Scripture. This Book is like turning to the last chapter of a Novel and reading it to find out how the story ends. Reality is that if we are not a follower and a lover of The Lord Jesus Christ then at the end of our life, this system of things,  the Prophetic events of Revelation is an horrific event.

 

This is the Revelation that God The Father gave to Jesus Christ His Son to show His servants the things that would come to pass. Jesus sent and signed it by His Angel to His servant John. John bore record of the Word of God and of the testimony of Jesus Christ and of most all the things which he was shown. “Blessed is the person that reads or hears the words of this Book and does and keeps close to their heart the things that are written within it. For the beginning of these times are now at hand.”

 

As instructed John wrote this Book to the Seven Churches that were in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey). John saluted these seven Churches through the Grace and Peace of Jesus Christ. He which is, which was and He which is to come and from the Seven Spirits (Angels) which are before the Throne of God. For it is Jesus Christ which is the Faithful Witness of the Father and is the first begotten of the dead. It is Jesus who loved the human race and washed our sins away with His Own Blood. Please think about verse seven for a moment, “Behold Jesus will come in the clouds and every eye shall see Him they also which pierced Him. All the peoples of the Earth shall wail because of Him.” What a horrible sight it will be, the return of Jesus Christ for all of those who have rejected Him and have turned their back on Him. Think about how horrifying it will be for all of those who spat on Him, slapped, whipped, mocked and crucified Him when they see Him coming in the clouds with His Angels.

 

John was in meditation and prayer when he heard behind him a great voice like unto the voice of a trumpet. The voice said to him “I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last. What you see, write it in a book and sent it to the Seven Churches which are in Asia. Unto Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and to Laodicea.” When John turned to see of whom the voice was that spoke to him, he saw Seven Golden Candlesticks. In the midst of the Seven Golden Candlesticks stood a man who looked like Jesus. He was clothed down to His feet and wrapped around His waist was a Golden Girdle. His Head and His Hair was white like wool, as white as snow. His eyes were like unto a flame of fire. His Feet were like unto fine brass as it glowed in a furnace. His Voice was like unto the sound of many waters.

 

The Lord had in His Right Hand Seven Stars. Out of His Mouth came forth a sharp two edged sword. The Lord’s countenance was like unto the shinning of the Sun in it’s strength. When John saw Him, he fell at the Lord’s Feet as a dead man. Now, I have to admit that I love The Lord with all that I am but I can honestly say that my heart would probably have stopped if I had turned around and seen this Sight. Either from shock or from pure joy but either way I probably would have died on the spot. At this time The Lord put His right hand upon John and said to him, “fear not, I am The First and The Last. I am He that lives and was dead. Behold I am alive for evermore and I have the keys to Hell and of Death.” “I will show you the hidden Truth of the Seven Stars which you saw in my Right Hand and of the Seven Golden Candlesticks. The Seven Stars are the Angels of the Seven Churches. The Seven Candlesticks which you saw are the Seven Churches.”

 

Well folks, this completes our study of chapter one of this fascinating Book of Prophesy. In this letter today we mostly have laid the foundation for the rest of this very important and interesting book. I hope that you will join me as we go through each of these 22 chapters one at a time. I pray that The Lord will bless you and all of your loved ones, until we can meet again, God bless.

Do you remember these fads from the ’50’s?

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

Do you remember these fads from the ’50’s?

The age of the Baby Boomer generation, the 1950s, brought memorable fashion statements as well as a new era of culture and entertainment. Some of the trends never resurfaced, while others never went away. Several are true hallmarks of life in the ‘50’s.

Poodle skirts

Black and white photo of a poodle skirt
Credit: bobbieo/ iStock

Poodle skirts were all the rage. They allowed girls the freedom to dance without restriction to that new rock ‘n’ roll music that also hit the scene. Poodle skirts came in all kinds of colors and reached just below the knee. They were often made of felt and got their name because the original versions were adorned with images of a poodles. Their crinoline net underlining provided a swish with which the poodle skirt will forever be associated. To this day, it’s hard to think of the 50’s without thinking of the poodle skirt, a fad that defined the decade.

Hula hoops

Photo of children playing with hula hoops
Credit: StockPlanets/ iStock

Invented in 1957 and then licensed to Wham-O in 1958, the hula-hoop toy took its name from the Hawaiian Hula dance because using a hula-hoop seemed to imitate it. It had sales up to $25 million in just two months, and eventually reached nearly 100 million orders worldwide. Hula-hoops were not enjoyed in every country. Japan banned them because the nature of their movement seemed too provocative. Still, they remained popular until the late ‘70s and have enjoyed resurgence in popularity in recent years.

TV dinners

Vintage photo of a TV dinner
Credit: CSA Images/ iStock

A booming pos-World War II economy finally allowed women to enter the workforce in record numbers. Since women couldn’t always be home cooking for the family anymore, it’s no wonder that easy, processed foods became a quick fad. The most notorious was the TV dinner, a Swanson product that arrived in supermarkets in 1953. TV dinners were portioned trays with separate sections for the different parts of the meal, typically meat, potatoes, and a vegetable. All you had to do was pop them in the oven for 30 minutes, peel back the foil, and you were in business. Afterward, you’d throw away the disposable tray, leaving no dishes to wash. TV dinners are still around today, though now they’re microwave-friendly, making them even more convenient than they used to be.

3-D movies

Photo 3-D glasses with red and blue lenses
Credit: 3dbrained/ iStock

The ‘50s brought television into people’s homes, which worried film industry executives. They had to find a way to keep people coming to the theaters, and 3-D movies were just the thing. Although 3-D movies had been around since the 1920s, their popularity did not begin until the ‘50s with the film “Bwana Devil” in 1952Theaters issued moviegoers 3-D glasses, which provided the 3-D effect. Experts thought 3-D movies would skyrocket, but that wasn’t what happened. However, some big titles were filmed in 3-D, including “Kiss Me Kate” and “Dial M for Murder,” but the standard 2-D versions still had them beat.

As a result, the trend didn’t outlast the 50’s…. until recently. Today, in the era of the superhero-movie craze, most major modern blockbusters are released in high-tech 3-D versions that generate serious cash.

Davy Crockett’s coonskin cap

Photo of a coonskin cap
Credit: Chiyacat/ iStock

The Walt Disney miniseries “Davy Crockett” came out in 1964. The protagonist, Davy Crockett, was a 19th century American frontiersman and a hero who wore an iconic coonskin cap. Little did Disney know that the cap would bring them $100 million in sales as everyone and their mother wanted one of their very own. To this day, those coonskin caps are still associated with the wild frontier of early America.

Outdated but not forgotten

Vintage photo of a family standing next to a retro Volkswagen van
Credit: atlantic-kid/ iStock

Whether you were alive in the 50’s or not, you’re probably aware of these fabulous fads of that unforgettable era. While most of them weren’t timeless trends that outlasted the decade, they have left their mark on history.

(Poem) Today The Hate Flew In

Today The Hate Flew In

 

Today we all remember the day the hate flew into our home

Eighteen years ago on this very mornings date and time

The blind began to see what their minds didn’t seem to know

There are millions in this world who hate both you and me

Many millions now ask, why was this attack upon all of us

 

This morning hate flew in on the wings of four passenger jets

For many was the first time we had seen mass death on our T.V.’s

On this day anger did rage and criers burst into many a tears

Why did some hate us so that they gave their lives in such a rage

Were we really innocent in that we were blinded to their hate

 

Two buildings flattened in lower Manhattan and one hit in D.C.

In a field in western Pennsylvania there is a fourth mass grave

Over three thousand innocent folks lost their lives this day

A unholy war of 1,400 years showed it’s ugly face to us today

A new date of infamy was today, the day the hate flew in

5 most bizarre Greek myths about animals

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

5 most bizarre Greek myths about animals

There are numerous myths, legends, and folk stories surrounding the history of Ancient Greece. Greek mythology is renowned for its bizarre creatures, powerful Gods, and epic battles—though some of these tales are stranger than others. While most of us are familiar with the stories of the “classic” monsters — the Hydra, the Minotaur, the snake-haired Medusa — there are plenty of other bizarre beasts populating these Greek stories.

The Nemean Lion

Credit: ANGHI / iStock

One of the mythological creatures on this list, the Nemean Lion was a gigantic beast, armed with razor-sharp claws and adorned in golden fur said to be impervious to mortal weapons.

This seeming-immortality was put to the test when Greek hero Heracles was ordered to slay the Nemean Lion as the first of his 12 famous Labors. As the story goes, Heracles attempted to shoot the lion with arrows before realizing that its fur was impenetrable. When this didn’t work, Heracles took a different approach. Different versions of the tale offer two possible outcomes:

  • Heracles shot an arrow into the lion’s unprotected mouth, killing it instantly.
  • Heracles used rocks to trap the lion in its den and proceeded to grapple with it by hand, eventually using his godlike strength to strangle the beast to death.

The Stymphalian Birds

Credit: Albrecht Dürer / Public domain

Denizens of the ancient Greek city of Stymphalia, these monstrous birds were pets of Artemis, the Greek Goddess of the hunt. According to the story, the Stymphalian Birds had beaks made of bronze that were strong enough to pierce the iron plate of Greek armor. Their feathers were supposedly made of metal, used as projectile weapons that could be launched at victims, and their dung was toxic to mortals.

Again, Heracles was set to the task of eradicating these creatures as the sixth of his 12 Labors. However, Heracles didn’t do it alone. With the help of Greek Gods Athena and Hephaestus, and using the poisonous blood of the already-slain Hydra, Heracles was able to rustle the birds from their nest and shoot them down with his toxic arrows. And though many of the birds escaped the purge (later to encounter Jason and the Argonauts), Heracles was able to accomplish his task.

Pegasus

Credit: ezypix / iStock

We’ve all heard of Pegasus: The majestic winged stallion that Poseidon created from the magical blood of the slain Medusa.

In texts, Pegasus was a valuable ally to Poseidon’s son, Bellerophon, in his epic battle against the Chimaera, and later, the Amazons. Bellerophon shortly thereafter met his end (he fell off Pegasus while trying to ascend to Mt. Olympus), and Pegasus would join the pantheon of the immortals in service to Zeus, who charged the stallion with carrying his thunderbolts into battle. Eventually, Pegasus would be immortalized as the constellation that shares his name.

Pegasus is one of the most popular icons for in Greek Mythology, with frequent depiction on coins, in sculpture, pottery, and other artistic works. More than many other Greek creatures, Pegasus has become ingrained in Western culture, so much so that the word “Pegasus” now refers to both the mythological figure and the entire species of winged horses that we often see in fantasy stories.

The Mares of Diomedes

Credit: St.MarieLtd. / iStock

Marking another of Heracles’ legendary Labors, (most of which involved mythic animals in some way), his eighth task was to recapture the lost Mares of King Diomedes.

The only problem? The horses were consumed by madness, trained to eat human flesh instead of regular feed and even thought to breathe fire. Though the story differs amongst versions, it’s generally accepted that Heracles was able to calm the horses enough to be tamed and kill the mad king Diomedes of Thrace, leaving Heracles free to rescue the horses and complete his task.

Carcinus

Credit: Roman Voloshyn / Shutterstock.com

Carcinus played an important role in Heracles’ battle against the Hydra. Not in favor of Heracles, of course — Carcinus is yet another mythical creature sent by the Gods to kill Heracles. And while the Hydra is certainly the headliner in that battle, the crab Carcinus fought bravely against the Greek hero, despite the fact that Carcinus had no impenetrable fur, fire breath, or toxic dung. So says the text:

“Then a giant crab (karkinos) came along to help the Hydra, and bit Herakles on the foot. For this he killed the crab.”

Yes, brave Carcinus did not last long. However, the Goddess Hera (who hated Heracles, incidentally) was moved by the crab’s bravery, and immortalized him as the constellation Cancer (pictured above).

Bizarre Greek Animals

Credit: Digital Storm / Shutterstock.com

Yes, Greek mythology is full of strange tales and bizarre creatures. But that’s what makes the stories so much fun. The fantastical elements, epic poetry, and otherworldly monsters have captured the imaginations of cultures across the world. And given that these are just a few examples of the strange and bizarre Greek creatures that exist, it’s not hard to see why.

Mysterious Indus Valley People Gave Rise to Modern-Day South Asians

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF LIVE SCIENCE)

 

Mysterious Indus Valley People Gave Rise to Modern-Day South Asians

a photograph of an ancient skeleton buried in Rakigarhi in India

The skeleton of an individual from the Indus Valley Civilization whose fragile, ancient DNA revealed links to modern-day South Asian populations.
(Image: © Vasant Shinde)

Ancient DNA evidence reveals that the people of the mysterious and complex Indus Valley Civilization are genetically linked to modern South Asians today.

The same gene sequences, drawn from a single individual who died nearly 5,000 years ago and was buried in a cemetery near Rakhigarhi, India, also suggest that the Indus Valley developed farming independently, without major migrations from neighboring farming regions. It’s the first time an individual from the ancient Indus Valley Civilization has yielded any DNA information whatsoever, enabling researchers to link this civilization both to its neighbors and to modern humans.

The Indus Valley, or Harappan, Civilization flourished between about 3300 B.C. and 1300 B.C. in the region that is now covered by parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, contemporaneous with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The people of the Indus Valley forged an impressively advanced civilization, with large urban centers, standardized systems of weights and measurements and even drainage and irrigation systems. Yet despite that sophistication, archaeologists know far less about the civilization than that of ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia, in part because the Indus Valley writing system hasn’t yet been deciphered.

Cracking Codes: 5 Ancient Languages Yet to Be Deciphered

a map of india, pakistan and afghanistan with sites where indus valley civilization archaeological finds havke been discovered

A map of the Indus Valley, or Harappan, Civilization. Rakhigarhi, the location of the burial that yielded ancient DNA for analysis, is highlighted in blue.

(Image credit: Vasant Shinde)

 Elusive DNA

Gathering ancient DNA from the Indus Valley is an enormous challenge, Vagheesh Narasimhan, one of the leading authors of the new research and a postdoctoral fellow in genetics at Harvard Medical School, Live Science, because the hot, humid climate tends to degrade DNA rapidly. Narasimhan and his colleagues attempted to extract DNA from 61 individuals from the Rakhigarhi cemetery and were successful with only one, skeleton likely belonging to a female which was found nestled in a grave amid round pots, her head to the north and feet to the south.

a round, red, chipped pot found in an ancient burial from the indus valley civilization

A red pot found near the head of the Indus Valley skeleton that yielded ancient DNA.

(Image credit: Vasant Shinde)

The first revelation from the ancient gene sequences was that some of the inhabitants of the Indus Valley are connected by a genetic thread to modern-day South Asians. “About two-thirds to three-fourths of the ancestry of all modern South Asians comes from a population group related to that of this Indus Valley individual,” Narasimhan said.

Where the Indus Valley individual came from is a more difficult question, he said. But the genes do suggest that the highly agricultural Indus people were not closely related to their farming neighbors in the western part of what is now Iran.

“We were able to examine different associations between the advent of farming in that part of the world with the movement of people in that part of the world,” said Narasimhan.

Farming, Narasimhan said, first began in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East around 10,000 years ago. No one knows precisely how it spread from there. Did agriculture pop up independently in areas around the globe, perhaps observed by travelers who brought the idea to plant and cultivate seeds back home? Or did farmers move, bringing their new agricultural lifestyle with them?

In Europe, the genetic evidence suggests that the latter is true: Stone Age farmers introduced Southern Europe to agriculture, then moved north, spreading the practice as they went. But the new Indus Valley genetic evidence hints at a different story in South Asia. The Indus Valley individual’s genes diverged from those of other farming cultures in Iran and the Fertile Crescent before 8000 B.C., the researchers found.

“It diverges at a time prior to the advent of farming almost anywhere in the world,” Narasimhan said. In other words, the Indus Valley individual wasn’t the descendent of wandering Fertile Crescent farmers. She came from a civilization that either developed farming on its own, or simply imported the idea from neighbors — without importing the actual neighbors.

Both immigration and ideas are plausible ways to spread farming, Narasimhan said, and the new research suggests that both happened: immigration in Europe, ideas in South Asia. The results appear today (Sept. 5) in the journal Cell.

Complex populations

The researchers also attempted to link the Indus Valley individual to his or her contemporaries. In a companion paper published today in the journal Science, the researchers reported on ancient and modern DNA data from 523 individuals who lived in South and Central Asia over the last 8,000 years. Intriguingly, 11 of these people — all from outside the Indus Valley — had genetic data that closely matched the Indus Valley Individual. These 11 people also had unusual burials for their locations, Narasimhan said. Together, the genetic and archaeological data hint that those 11 people were migrants from the Indus Valley Civilization to other places, he said.

However, these conclusions should be viewed as tentative, warned Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, an archaeologist and expert on the Indus Valley Civilization at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, who was not involved in the new research. Archaeological evidence suggests that Indus Valley cities were cosmopolitan places populated by people from many different regions, so one person’s genetic makeup might not match the rest of the population. Furthermore, Kenoyer said, burial was a less common way of dealing with the dead than cremation.

“So whatever we do have from cemeteries is not representative of the ancient populations of the Indus cities, but only of one part of one community living in these cities,” Kenoyer said.

And though the Indus individual and the 11 potential migrants found in other areas might have been related, more ancient DNA samples will be needed to show which way people, and their genes, were moving, he said.

Narasimhan echoed this need for more data, comparing the cities of the Indus Valley to modern-day Tokyo or New York City, where people gather from around the world. Ancient DNA is a tool for understanding these complex societies, he said.

“Population mixture and movement at very large scales is just a fundamental fact of human history,” he said. “Being able to document this with ancient DNA, I think, is very powerful.”

Originally published on Live Science.

The most religious countries in the world

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRIVIA GENIUS)

 

The most religious countries in the world

Trends in in the Western world have show a decline in religiosity for quite some time now. While some may foresee a growing rise of secularism across the globe, these trends are not reflected in many parts of the developing world. More than 55 countries across Asia and Africa report over 90% of their populations identifying as religious. Of these nations, some tend towards religious homogeneity, whereas others are a mixed bag of diverse religious beliefs. Gauging religiosity can be complicated both by the method of investigation and the legal and social restrictions of a population. Because of this, it’s necessary to take several different approaches to measuring religiosity within a population.

Countries with 97% religious populations

Credit: webking / iStock

The most straightforward measure of religiosity is simply to ask populations if they identify as religious. By this measure, the third tier of super-majority religious populations is peppered across Asia and Africa. Of the countries reporting 97% religiosity, four are majority Muslim, comprising Afghanistan, Comoros, Egypt, and Morocco. Thailand, Myanmar and Laos are majority Buddhist nations, though Myanmar has no state religion.

Countries with 98% religious populations

All of the second-ranking nations by self-identifying religious practitioners are in North Africa. Of these countries, Burundi is the only majority (86%) Christian nation. Djibouti, Mauritania and Somalia also report 98% religiosity with majority Muslim populations. Mauritania reports a nearly 100% Muslim population, though religious freedom has been criticized there and may influence self-reports.

Countries with 99% religious populations

Credit: 2511photos / iStock

Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Malawi, Niger, and Sri Lanka are the world’s most religious countries by self-identification with 99% of the population self-identifying as religious. Niger, Indonesia, and Bangladesh have super-majorities of Muslims with large celebrations and displays of their faith. Malawi and Ethiopia show majority Christian populations with a notable presence of Muslims. Finally, in Sri Lanka, Buddhism is the major religion, though it shows the most diversity among faiths in the top tier of religiosity, including adherents of Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam.

Most devout populations

Identifying as religious doesn’t necessarily equate to the devotion of adherents. Whereas religious identity is most predominant in the above listed societies, it can be separately measured as to how religious the participants in a study identify themselves. By this measure, the citizens of Israel identify most strongly with their religious identity (Jewish) among all world populations. This figure is followed closely by Muslims in Saudi Arabia and then Iran.

Largest religious populations

Credit: Boonyachoats / iStock

The United States houses the largest number of Christians by a population of over 229 million. With 245 million followers, Indonesia has the largest number of Muslims. India is the homeland and capital of Hinduism with 957 million, and China houses the largest number of Buddhists. Finally, Israel has the largest number of Jewish citizens in the world at 6 million.

Largest religions

Credit: ozgurdonmaz / iStock

Measuring by ratio and devotion is a separate measure from the size of a faith. Islam takes many of the top spots, but it is not yet the world’s most widely-practiced religion. Christianity still holds the lead in terms of followers by a substantial spread as the world’s most widely practiced religion ahead of Islam. Of the entire human population, 33% are Christian and 24.1% are Muslim. The third largest group of spiritual identity is “unaffiliated,” comprising atheists, agnostics, and the irreligious.

World’s least religious

On the opposite end of the spectrum, Sweden is among the most secular countries in the world with only 8% of Swedes regularly attending religious service, and only one in three weddings is performed by the Church of Sweden.

The Life And Times Of Blanche Anders Savage (The Cookie Lady) 1930-2000

The Life And Times Of Blanche Anders Savage (The Cookie Lady) 1930-2000

 

The Cookie Lady-A True Story of a wonderful person who lived from 1930-2000

 

My name is Blanche, I was born into a poor white family in Benson Minnesota in September of 1930. My mother is Sophie Amanda Hanson. She was born here in Benson Minnesota in December of 1905. My dad is Elbert Anders of Galax, Virginia. He was born in September of 1905. I only have one sibling, my brother Lonnie who was born in January of 1936 in Faith South Dakota. But, I won’t speak of Faith just yet. My mom’s parents came here from Norway in the late 1880’s and had more kids than the fingers could count. Mom was just one of many of the Hanson children but in my opinion was the sweetest of all. Mom obtained a seventh grade education, enough to read and write clearly. Dad was a rambler who was doing just that in 1928 when he and my mom met.

Dad seemed to always love two things most in life, horses and women. I don’t blame my dad for all of his faults; after all, we all have some. Dad never had any education at all and never did learn to read and write. It was the late 1960’s before he learned how to sign his name.

Watching my parents struggle throughout my childhood ingrained in me the determination to get an education and to stay in school and get my high school diploma. This was one of the few goals in my life that I was able to accomplish.  My childhood taught me many things; things like the rich had good educations. And that the rich got rich and stayed rich on the sweat off the uneducated poor man’s back. Even as a small child I was always aware that we were looked down upon by those who could afford the nice clothes, fancy cars and big houses.

Mom and dad got married in 1928 in Benson. I never could figure why mom would have married my dad. Maybe it was that she was considered an old maid, going on 23 and still not married. I know she was never happy in her life with the cards she had been dealt. You know, uneducated, poor women aren’t anything except slaves to their uneducated ignorant husbands. Even the children that they bare are just an extension of the male’s property.

Shortly after I was born dad moved us to a little town in western South Dakota called Faith. A saying that I remember about Faith was fitting, “Faith South Dakota, a hundred miles from anywhere”. Dad had a couple of brothers that lived out that away. So I guess it was fitting that he would up and ramble toward them next.

I remember our years in South Dakota as being a pure hell, Faith with its dirt streets and water that had to be trucked in. It seems like I was always cold and dirty there. We lived in several one room shacks, some just lean-to’s on the back of peoples’ houses, seems like we were always hungry and cold. There were several of the places we lived that had dirt floors with walls and roofs that you could see straight through to the outside. I guess Faith was the reason I never did like to do any camping, so many of the places we lived seemed almost like we were camping.

To be fair to the town, maybe things wouldn’t have been as bad as they were if dad would have cared more about his family and less about other women, horses and bulldogs. Dad always tried to keep a horse and a bulldog or two. The horse I could understand, we hardly ever had a car, so the horse was his transportation back in those years. The bulldogs, I don’t know why he liked to have them. I guess it was just so he could have something else to beat on. I was always scared of his dogs, yet I always felt sorry for them. They were always kept chained to a stake in the back yard. Looking back, it might have been that he knew the dogs would bark if we had any visitors. The way he was always chasing after women, I guess that wasn’t such a bad idea.

My brother Lonnie was born there in Faith in January of 1936. It was always nice having a brother. Throughout our childhoods we were each others best friends, confidants and play partners. Yet having a brother was difficult too. It wasn’t just having another mouth to feed and back to clothe. It was also the having to see the hardships put upon yet another one that you loved without being able to do anything to correct it, or stop it.

I remember one night it had gotten dark and dad wasn’t home from his job yet and mom was crying real hard. I didn’t understand why mom was so upset because it was normal that dad didn’t come home before dark. I asked mom what was wrong and she told me about the rent being due that night, and dad being paid that day, but he hadn’t paid the rent or come home with his pay.

This was in the summer of 1937 and I was almost seven years old. My brother Lonnie was just about one and a half at the time. Mom said she had to stay home with the baby, but she told me to go through town and look for dad’s horse, find him and ask him to please come home, pay the rent and buy the family some food. It wasn’t long before I found dad’s horse tied up beside a building that had a lot of music and noise coming from it. I noticed a window on the side of the building with some empty wood crates by it. I took a few of the crates and stacked them up to where I could get up on them and look into that window. What I seen shocked me a lot. There was a naked woman sitting on top of my dad in a chair and he was also naked. They were just laughing and seemed to be having a lot of fun. Well, I was so surprised that I stumbled and fell off the crates onto the ground, with the crates falling after me. I made such a noise that the woman and dad both came and looked out the window at me. Dad was sure mad at me and he whipped me all the way home.

When we got home dad was still mad and he hollered at mom for a long time, I know she cried for hours. Dad said that mom and I had embarrassed him something horrible by doing what we had done. A couple of days after that dad sold his horse and his dogs and he pulled up to the shack we were living in, in an old dilapidated 1922 Ford car. Dad and mom took what few things we had, stuffed them and the four of us into the car and we left Faith South Dakota for a place called Galax Virginia.

I didn’t know anything about this place we were headed, I just hoped it was better than the place we had been. I know I prayed that I would never see Faith or South Dakota again for all I remembered of them was hardship. As it turned out I would see both again, but at least it would wait more than thirty years.

The trip from Faith to Galax is about 2,000 miles and in that old piece of junk dad was driving it took us three weeks to make it to Galax. I learned that the reason dad chose Galax was because he had several brothers and sisters living in and around this town he was born in. The three weeks the trip took seemed like forever. At night we would stop alongside the road and we would sleep on the ground beside the car. I remember being so scared and so hungry, hoping that we could make it to our new home.

When we finally made it to Galax we were broke and hungry. None of dad’s folks knew we were coming but none the less they took us in and kept us alive. I know it embarrassed mom a lot as we moved from one of dad’s kin to another over the first two months. But eventually one of dad’s brothers was able to get dad on at the mine he was working at just across the North Carolina line. Mom got a job at the local hospital changing linens and bed pans for the patients.

After a couple of months mom and dad were able to save enough money to rent a house in “the bottom” there in town. The bottom was a place that the working white poor folk lived. But still the house we were renting was like a real home. It had windows and wood floors and you couldn’t see any stars at night while lying in bed. Even though you could feel the cold air in the winter around the windows and doors at least it wasn’t so bad that the snow would come through them when they were closed. A few years later we were able to buy a different house there in the bottom down by the swinging bridge. That was after the war had started and dad was getting to work regular. It was a two bedroom with an inside toilet and a pot-bellied coal stove in the living room that kept us warm in the winter.

With the move to Virginia our scenery got a lot prettier, the weather was a lot nicer, and the people seemed to be friendlier. Our housing situation was much more stable and mom and dad had regular work. So a lot of things were better, more stable for us now, but there was still many heartaches. The change of location didn’t change any of dad’s ways. We soon had a bulldog staked in the backyard and dad bought himself a horse and paid a farmer money to keep the horse at his place. Any money he had left was always spent on other women.

By now I was reaching an age to where I wasn’t as blind to the reality I was living in. For years I was required to take this little red wagon I had to a building downtown where I got food twice a month. This place handed out some flour, cornmeal, beans, bread, and cheese. If it wasn’t for Mr. Roosevelt, Mom, Lonnie and I would have been very hungry. I guess that is a big reason why I have been a lifelong democrat. I grew up believing that to vote republican you either had to be rich or stupid.

At the age of fourteen, I was able to get a job at the soda fountain inside the Peoples Drug Store in downtown Galax. I worked there three hours each evening and all day on Saturdays. I used this money to buy my own school clothes and the cost of my school supplies. I also worked in the school cafeteria serving food so that I could get my meals there for free. That was a lot better than having to run home at lunch, get a sandwich and a glass of milk then run back to school especially on the cold winter days.

I graduated high school in 1947. It was then I started working full-time at the drug store. I still lived at home and remained under dad’s control. I was never allowed to date. I’m sure it was because dad had his view of what women were and he wasn’t about to let me be anything like the women he had always known.

Dad worked with a man named Wayne Savage whom dad admired a lot because he was very strong and a real hard worker. As things worked out, Wayne had a younger brother named Bill who was getting out of the Navy from his two-year hitch in February of 1948. Wayne got Bill a job there at the mine when he was discharged from the Navy. So I ended up with dad’s insistence dating Bill and then marrying him May 29th, 1948. One truth I was always proud of is that I was a virgin on my wedding night.

Bill turned out to be a lot of the things dad was, and a lot of things he wasn’t. I think the reason Bill got married was for the free sex, free housekeeper, free cook and an extra paycheck. In my dad’s defense he was a hard worker and a non-drinker. Unfortunately Bill was an alcoholic and he never found a job he would stick with.

From 1949 through 1956 I gave birth to four children. Our oldest Larry was born in my mom’s home in June 1949 with a midwife. Our second child, Steven Ray was born in a hospital in Winston-Salem North Carolina in May of 1952. I have always been so glad that I gave birth to Steven in a hospital or I never would have been able to forgive myself. The doctors said Steven was born with a hole in his heart. In 1952 they couldn’t save him; he lived three days, never leaving the hospital. We buried Steven in the McKenzie Cemetery just outside of Galax. Our third child was our little girl Kay; she was born in September of 1954. Kay and our last child Ted were born in the hospital in Galax. Ted was born in August 1956. He was always sickly and skinny as a rail, at every meal it was difficult to get him to eat. This just made him a target for Bill. I dreaded every meal because you always knew that Bill would start yelling at him and then start beating him. Ted had to put up with that until he was seventeen. He stood up to Bill then and it was plain that Bill got scared, but he never treated Ted like that again. But that was 1973, so I’m getting ahead of myself so I’m going to step back in time to 1961.

Bill and our family had rented many places until we got lucky and was able to get the bank to finance us a small eight acre farm in nearby Woodlawn, Virginia. It was a dream come true for me, our own house. It was a three bedroom, one bath, two-story house with a small detached garage, a full size barn, and a hog house. The property was fenced in so we could have a cow and there was plenty of wild game such as squirrels, rabbits, pheasants and turkeys to keep the freezer full. In 1961 the cost of all this was $8,000.00.

By the time the spring of 1965 rolled around Bill had worked at about every place in the Galax area and none of the employers would have him anymore. That spring one of Bill’s drinking buddies stopped by our house and talked to Bill about the coal mines in Butte, Montana. Telling Bill about the good paying jobs there in the mines and how wonderful Montana was. In less than two weeks Bill was on a Greyhound bus.

The plan was for Bill to go there, get a good job, find the family a place, then in August come back to Virginia, sell the farm and we would move to Butte. Like always things didn’t work out that way. Bill came back on the bus the first of August without a dime in his pockets. He had been living in an apartment and had no place ready for us to move to. He said he had been keeping all his money in his apartment and shortly before he was to come back home someone broke into the apartment and stole all the money.

Bill’s plan was to come back to Virginia, sell the farm, and use the equity money to move with. It was many years later before we found out that the mines Bill was supposed to be working at had closed down. This explained why he was broke when he came back. This also meant that Bill had no job to move us to.  So he came back, we sold the farm for $8,500.00 netting a clear $800.00 to use for the move. Bill’s plan was to stop in Deadwood South Dakota where I had two uncles and aunts, play sick, say he went to a doctor, lie saying he had black lung and that he would be dead by forty if he continued mining. He was one month away from thirty-eight at that time.

So Bill, with no job to go to, sells our home, and moves his wife and three kids across the country headed to nothing. We stayed with my family for three days while Bill found a job in nearby Spearfish at the Homestake Sawmill. We then found a basement apartment to rent nearby the mill. The jobs in Galax all paid the minimum wage of $1.25 per hour. I found a job in a nursing home for, you guessed it, $1.25 per hour. Bills job at the mill paid $1.90 per hour.

This was August 1965, we didn’t escape there until November 1966. A representative from Chrysler Corporation came out there trying to recruit employees for a new assembly plant in Belvidere Illinois. Seems the local people were too offended that Chrysler was going to pay people more than $5.00 an hour with great benefits while the rest of the town was settled into jobs paying less than $2.00 an hour. I know that makes no sense, but a lot of people from South Dakota jumped on those jobs the Belvidere locals didn’t want.

In the fifteen months we were in Spearfish I was so depressed that we were going to end up stuck there forever. I have to admit we had a few good times while we were there. We did visit a few local parks, and Spearfish is in the “Black Hills”. During this time our oldest son Larry went back to Galax to live. He was sixteen, almost seventeen and he got a job at Vaughan Basset Furniture factory. He stayed there until just before we moved to Belvidere. He came back and helped us with the move then he decided to stay in Belvidere and when he turned eighteen he also got a job at Chrysler.

I remember that while we were in South Dakota we visited Mount Rushmore on our eighteenth anniversary (1966). We also took a trip in the summer of 66 to Faith to watch a big yearly rodeo they held. The roads were still dirt and I still saw water trucks, but they did have a good rodeo. On the Fourth of July 1966 we went to the big rodeo show in Deadwood. During an intermission they put on the Wild Bill Hickok Show, the one where he was shot in the back playing cards in the saloon. That’s pretty much all the good memories I have from there. I was just glad to get out of there in November of 66 as we headed east praying that Belvidere would be better.

When we got to Illinois we rented an apartment in the town of Cherry Valley for three months. The rent was $150.00 per month but after we had been there for three months they raised the rent to $200.00 so we looked around and found a nice old house in Belvidere for $85.00 a month. It was right by the city park, real close to the waterfall. If Bill could have ever quit his drinking and acted like a husband and a dad we could probably have been happy there.

We lived in that house from February 1967 till April 1970. We all survived the big F-4 tornado of April 21st, 1967 unharmed while living in that house. Also during that time frame Bill got hurt at work. Bill’s foreman told him to take a part over to a certain bucket and wash it off. Turns out the bucket had acid in it. Bill had only stuck his right hand down in it thank goodness. The acid really messed up his hand and the nerves with it. He ended up missing several months work and we sued Chrysler settling out of court for $10,000.00. We put $8,000.00 down on a home on the western outskirts of town that was priced at $25,000.00. It set on an acre of land bordering a large county park. Once again, if Bill could have just acted like a man we could have been very happy there.

In February 1974, Bill and I were in a car wreck in Belvidere as a man drove through a stop sign and hit us broadside. I wasn’t injured but Bill broke his left hip and cracked his left ankle. The day after Bill had his hip replacement he had a heart attack while lying in his hospital bed. He ended up having to have a four-way bypass operation. While Bill was recuperating he got a check in the mail from Social Security. Turns out that Chrysler went through the process to get him disabled because he had nine years in with them and at ten years guaranteed lifetime benefits would be coming into effect and they weren’t wanting to have to pay them.

Larry had gotten married in October 1968 to a lady with two kids; I think he married her to get out of being drafted into Vietnam, though I’ve always believed she really loved him. Kay got married in August of 1971; I believe just to get out of the house and away from Bill. My youngest, Ted, got married in May 1975. Now I was home alone with Bill all the time. Without the kids there Bill was still as hateful as ever.

In 1977 we sold the big house on the west side and bought a nice ranch style house only a couple blocks from my work in town. It was a beautiful house and I really loved it. Also about this time Bill finally quit drinking and I had high hopes for a better life but that was just wishful thinking. Bill stayed just as hateful and self-centered as he had always been. I had always hoped it was the alcohol, it wasn’t, it was just who he was.

I had a bad left hip during this time and it was real painful to try to work with. I had tried for Social Security but got turned down so I had to go back to work after about eleven months off. I had only been back to work less than a year when Bill came up to the office and told them I had to quit because I had gotten my Social Security. When we got home I found that was not true. It had only been suggested by my lawyer to appeal. Well, during this time our income was not enough to pay the bills. So in 1981 we had to sell the house before we lost it. We only had enough money to buy a new, but cheap single wide trailer that because of zoning laws we had to put into a mobile home court. It was the nicest court in town but losing our home because of Bill’s ignorance just made me sick.

Shortly after we got moved I was turned down again on the Social Security. I had to go back up to that hole I had worked at since 1968 and ask for my job back, to my surprise they reinstated me with full seniority. I did end up getting a left hip replacement on my birthday 1992. The month before my oldest son Larry died of an aneurysm in his apartment in Scranton Pennsylvania. Bill’s health was constantly deteriorating and he died just before Christmas 1993 from heart failure. I ended up retiring in February 1994.

Now I was truly alone except for my daughter Kay who lived locally and was now a Methodist minister. I did have a few people at church that I associated with. My son Ted was a long-haul truck driver who only got to stop in for a night or so about three or four times a year.

My dad died in his sleep in early March 1987. I had a major heart attack on June 1st, 1996 that really set me back physically. But 1996 would only get worse. Mom died all alone in a nursing home in August and my brother Lonnie died that November of brain cancer and heart failure.

The next year, 1997, I had to have my right hip replaced, again on my birthday. It was hard to make do on my own but I made it. Jackie came over and helped me some while I was recuperating and Ted would send me extra money when he could to help me out. He was paying my lot rent for me each month which really helped out. One day when Kay and her husband were over I got a letter from Ted with a check for $690.00 in it, $190.00 for the lot rent and $500.00 to put up for emergency needs. Kay and her husband got really mad at me for “taking Teds’ money” like that. So from that point on Ted and I never mentioned anything about him helping me.

In March of 1999, Ted had to have heart surgery after a heart attack and he was out of work with no income for a long time. So in the summer of 1999 I took a job at a local nursing home two hours per night. My job was to help clean up the dining area and kitchen after supper had been served to the residents. It wasn’t much of a job, I hated doing it but it did make my lot rent payment.

That fall an opening came up for an extra half hour per night to go from room to room passing out cookies. I took on the extra work, but I truly enjoyed doing it. I felt sorry for so many of these people who had been discarded and abandoned here by their family members. I enjoy talking with them each evening, trying to cheer them up. It wasn’t long before I became known as “The Cookie Lady”, I enjoyed that title, it made me feel wanted.

Well, this is Sunday morning August 20th, 2000. I sometimes find it hard to believe that with the life I have had that I would have made it to the year 2000. I just spoke to my son Ted at his home in Florida but I need to get going or I will be late for church. I still need to stop by Kay’s before church and get her newspaper put in her house because they are on a weekend vacation.


Mom never made it to church. As she slowed down and turned into my sister’s driveway a young man driving a four-wheel drive Dodge Ram pickup thought it was a good time to speed up and pass. He hit mom right in the driver’s door at about seventy miles per hour, killing her instantly. He had hit her so hard that the coroner said the impact tore all the arteries away from her heart.

A bright light put out. A life lived in the darkness of others, seldom being allowed to shine. A life lived in so much sadness, put upon by others. So many joys of life denied her. In so many ways, a light, a life, unfulfilled. But a woman who will always be very much-loved, and missed “The Cookie Lady”, our Mom.