(I GOT THIS ARTICLE FROM GOOGLE PLUS, JAMMISON HILL, HISTORY)
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF COGNITIO NEWS)
Aha, the sovereign of the ancient Egypt
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Aha, the sovereign of the ancient Egypt. It was an Egyptian pharaoh, belonging to the dynasty. News of this ruler is extremely scarce and fragmented.
The name appears in the Palermo Stone as a unifier of Egypt.
This fact, combined with the discovery of an ivory plaque which, along with the name Aha, shows the hieroglyph mn (readable as Meni), has led some scholars, including Jürgen von Beckerath, to speculate that Narmer – Meni – Aha are names of the same sovereign.
An ebony plaque found at Abydos commemorates a campaign against the Nubians.
You may need him the extension of the southern border to the nomos of Elephantine.
In other inscriptions, the name is accompanied by receiving the Upper and Lower Egypt, and so it is conceivable that Aha has worked to consolidate the work of Narmer, his predecessor.The Ebers Papyrus, compiled Hyksos era, reports the tradition that would Aha as a doctor, also cited tradition from Sextus Julius Africanus. CAha chief queen may have been Benerib (He whose heart is sweet) and Khentap secondary queen. Assuming that Aha and Narmer are the same people, with the name “Meni” as the title, the role of chief queen should be for neithhotep, probably not the mother of Djer, Aha’s successor, who would act as regent. The Aha’s tomb was identified in the Necropolis of Umm el-Qa’ab at Abydos.
As every true sovereign does not just conduct wars of conquest and consolidation of his kingdom. As before him Scorpion King and the same King Narmer also devoted himself to the economic development and the United Social. To do this, he conducted studies and Research Department in various fields. His preference, however, went to Medicine and Architecture.
We know that he built, among others, a Temple that I dedicate to Neith, one of the oldest Dee d-Egypt, which revealed one in the United unification effort policy and strategic move.
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To open the video click on the image, good view from your Alessandro Brizzi.
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE BBC)
About 50,000 people in Hannover have been evacuated from their homes while experts defuse three British bombs dating from World War Two.
The operation is the second largest of its kind carried out in Germany, and has affected around a tenth of the city’s population.
The buildings evacuated included seven care homes, a clinic and a Continental tyre plant.
Officials hope those affected will be able to return home by the evening.
The evacuation deadline was 09:00 (07:00 GMT) and residents were advised to take necessary items like medication with them, as well as turning off gas and electrical appliances.
Local news outlet Hannoversche Allgemeine reported [in German] on Sunday afternoon that two unexploded bombs had been defused, and a third – which was severely damaged – might have to be made safe using a specialised cutting machine.
Two other suspected bombs had turned out to be harmless scrap metal, it said.
No firm deadline has been given for when the restricted zone will return to normal. Road blocks have been set up to prevent cars from re-entering the area.
Emergency shelters have been established at three schools, and tens of thousands of soup portions prepared.
Bomb disposal experts had initially checked as many as 13 suspicious objects, but only five were found to merit further attention – two on a building site at the city’s Wedelstaße, and three others nearby.
The city has set up a programme of museum tours, children’s films and sporting events to help evacuees spend the day as pleasantly as possible.
Allied planes bombed Hannover heavily during World War Two, killing thousands and destroying much of the city.
On 9 October 1943, an especially deadly night, 1,245 people were killed and 250,000 left homeless by 261,000 bombs.
The largest bomb-related evacuation since the war happened on Christmas Day last year, in Augsburg.
Some 54,000 people had to be moved after a 1.8 tonne bomb was unearthed during building work.
Other WW2 bombs recently discovered in Germany
- May 2015: 20,000 people in Cologne forced to leave their homes after a one-tonne bomb was discovered
- January 2012: A construction worker was killed when his digger hit an unexploded bomb in Euskirchen.
- December 2011: 45,000 people were evacuated from Koblenz after two bombs were found in the riverbed of the Rhine. It took three hours to make them both safe.
- June 2010: Three members of a bomb disposal squad were killed in Goettingen during an operation to defuse a bomb found on a building site.
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(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TIME.COM AND THE ASSOCIATED PRESS)
(VATICAN CITY) — The world’s oldest standing army has 40 new members after a Vatican Swiss Guard swearing-in ceremony.
Each man took a loyalty oath Saturday evening in a ritual-rich ceremony in the St. Damaso courtyard of the Apostolic Palace. The May 6 date commemorates the day in 1527 when 147 guardsmen died while protecting Pope Clement VII during the Sack of Rome.
Earlier Saturday, Pope Francis told the Guards they’re called to “another sacrifice no less arduous” — serving the power of faith.
The recruits, who enroll for at least two years, must be single, upstanding Swiss Catholic males younger than 30.
Wearing blue-and-gold uniforms and holding halberds — spear-like weapons — they are a tourist delight while standing guard at Vatican ceremonies. Their main duty is to protect the pope.
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE SHANGHAI DAILY NEWS)
Nomadic tomb discovered in Anyang City
A tomb complex likely used by nomadic people to bury their dead was recently discovered in Yinxu archeological site in Anyang City, Henan Province.
Over 90 tombs were excavated, among which 18 were believed to have been the final resting place of a nomadic group. The tombs are believed to be around 1,800 years old, according to the Institute of Archeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Anyang station.
Shen Wenxi, with the station, said evidence has been found indicating that Dasikong Village, the area where the tombs are located, had been a human settlement as early as the Shang Dynasty (16th century-11th century BC). The 18 nomadic tombs were likely built after the Shang Dynasty.
The burial objects include two-handled bronze and iron pots, iron short swords and agate beads on strings. Experts believe the 18 tombs could belong to the northern nomads who settled down in central China.
Among the remains was a well-preserved human skeleton, confirmed to be that of a 160cm-tall male.
In the 1950s, a tomb was discovered in Dasikong. This find, however, was the first time such a large nomadic tomb complex has been discovered in Anyang.
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR)
APRIL 26, 2017 —American history may have begun more than 100,000 years earlier than previously thought.
At least that’s what a team of scientists suggest in a paper published Wednesday in the journal Nature.
The paper’s authors point to an assemblage of broken mastodon bones and chipped rocks unearthed in southern California as evidence that a stone tool-wielding people snacked on the meat and marrow, or perhaps shaped tools out of the massive animal’s skeleton, when it died some 130,000 years ago.
Such a megafauna-human interaction from that period wouldn’t have been shocking to find almost anywhere else in the world, as various archaic human species had already spread across much of the globe. But humans are thought to have first settled the Americas around 15,000 years ago, give or take a thousand years, not 100,000.
Rewriting history is not an easy thing to do. The researchers’ findings have been met with widespread skepticism, highlighting just how hard it is to reframe historical narratives.
“It’s an extraordinary claim. It would rewrite the prehistory of the Americas, and the prehistory of human migrations around the world,” says Jon Erlandson, an archaeologist at the University of Oregon. Still, he says, “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, and I didn’t find it here.”
But Thomas Deméré, a paleontologist at the San Diego Natural History Museum and one of the paper’s authors, disagrees. “Of course extraordinary claims like this require extraordinary evidence and we feel that [this site] preserves such evidence,” he said in a press conference.
Skeptics largely suggest that the evidence for a hominin presence could too easily be explained away. For example, the authors point to spiral fractures in the bones as being key evidence of a hominin smashing the bones with hammerstones, which matches behavior thought to be associated with prehistoric humans in Africa at the time, and even tried smashing elephant bones themselves as a proxy. But Joseph Ferraro, an anthropologist at Baylor University who studies archaeological and paleontological materials across humanity’s history in East Africa, suggests that there may be another explanation.
The research team ruled out another carnivore chewing or bashing the bones, but Dr. Ferraro says that proboscideans, a group that includes elephants, mammoths, mastodons, and other tusked megafauna, are known to have tussled, using their tusks and whacking each other’s flanks. “It’s not uncommon to get broken ribs, not uncommon to get broken legs, and so forth,” he says. “That could easily result in a fracture, and if it results in the death of an individual, there’s not going to be any signs of any healing,” much like the breaks found on the mastodon that is the focus of this study.
“You can spin so many different equally or more plausible stories about how and why this assemblage formed, without having to invoke any sort of hominin activity whatsoever,” Ferraro says.
So just what would it take for this discovery to revise the prehistory of the Americas?
Although cutmarks and flaked stone tools would make this site more compelling, Ferraro says, all that is really needed would be one human fossil. If you had an unquestionably well-dated Homo erectus, or Neanderthal, or Denisovan, or even Homo sapiens bone, he says, then the prehistory books would certainly need to be rewritten. But, he says, “This is not that.”
The prehistory of the Americas has actually been rewritten before. For decades, archaeologists thought they knew exactly how and when humans first spread across the Americas.
The story, called the Clovis-first model, had the Clovis people as the first population to spread south into the Americas from the region near the Bering land bridge when an ice-free corridor opened up through the middle of Canada, around 13,500 years ago at the earliest. As this model reigned, older archaeological sites, like an underwater 14,500-year-old site in Florida or a 15,000-year-old site in Chile, were dismissed as insufficient evidence. The thinking was that anything dating before the distinctive Clovis spearpoints showed up in the archaeological record couldn’t possibly be evidence of a human presence.
Tom Dillehay, an anthropologist at Vanderbilt University, helped lead efforts countering the Clovis-first narrative through his work at the Monte Verde archaeological site in Chile. But, he says, although the San Diego site is a “classic early site” made up of bones and stones, the Monte Verde site also had other evidence pointing to a human presence, such as burned wood, knotted reeds, chunks of hide and meat, and even footprints.
Dr. Dillehay advises that it’s best to try to disprove any potentially history-shattering claims, rather than trying to prove them, saying it’s a stronger way to rule out all the other possible explanations for the evidence.
In the case of debunking the Clovis-first model, more archaeological sites bolstered the claim, and the same could help support Deméré and his colleagues’ claim, too.
There have been previous suggestions of such shockingly early human occupation of the Americas, similar to the current claim, Dr. Erlandson says. Items suggested to be artifacts of particularly ancient human settlements have been described from other sites in southern California, for example. But when this was proposed before, scientists went out looking for more evidence, Erlandson says, “And they never came up with anything convincing.”
Erlandson himself looked for evidence of human-caused fire, but was unable to find evidence that old scorched materials were the result of anything other than wildfires.
Still, Steven Holen, lead author on the new paper, said in the press conference that he has already been looking for similar fractures in megafauna bones, which may have been overlooked by paleontologists who wouldn’t have even considered a human impact at the time. Dr. Holen says evidence may have fallen through the cracks between archaeology and paleontology, as archaeologists wouldn’t have been looking at materials this old before and paleontologists wouldn’t have been considering a human factor when they examined the bones.
But Ferraro says such an assertion isn’t giving the experts enough credit. “There’s a big literature out there on bone damage,” he says. Paleontologists who devote their lives to studying bone damage can even identify something as specific as which species of termite once munched an old bone, he says, so he suspects paleontologists wouldn’t have missed something as significant as evidence of human activity.
Skeptics are also concerned about the bigger-picture implications of shifting the story of human occupation in the Americas so dramatically.
“As scientists we’re supposed to keep an open mind, but this discovery is hard to wrap my mind around because it falls so far beyond the realm of accepted knowledge,” Erlandson says. “I’m not opposed to controversial theories,” he says, “but if it’s really 130,000 years ago, it just raises so many questions”: for example, who those people were, where they came from, how they got there, and what happened in the subsequent 100,000 years.
To answer that last question, the authors did suggest in the press conference that, like any other population of animals, this group of humans may have died out and therefore not left a trace in the years before the ancestors of today’s Native Americans trekked across the land bridge from Siberia and spread across the region.
Filling in the other gaps of the background story implied by Deméré, Holen, and colleagues’ claim would require other extraordinary claims, Ferraro says. To explain how humans got to southern California would require a scenario such as one in which Homo erectus, Denisovans, or another archaic human species would have had to have been making boats in Siberia and following the coastline east, then down the western coast of the Americas, for example.
And each detail needed to support such a tale, from whether they possessed boating technology to which archaic human species made the journey, would be an additional extraordinary claim in its own right, he says, which would in turn require its own set of extraordinary evidence.
“It just requires so many individual extraordinary claims,” Ferraro says. “It’s not just one claim, but the whole argument is resting on a very shaky foundation.”
Perhaps eventually the prehistory books of the Americas will need to be revised to include a human presence 130,000 years ago, but first, Dillehay says, all other possible explanations need to be ruled out. “In other words,” he says, the question must be asked: “Are we being fooled in this case once again?”
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CHADBAD.ORG)
Passover’s 4 Steps to Breaking Bad Habits
During the Passover Seder we recount in detail the plight of the Israelites as slaves in ancient Egypt, and we celebrate their eventual salvation. However, the Seder is not just about commemorating past events.
The Talmudic sage Rabban Gamaliel II called upon us to include a personal element in the rituals of the Seder. “In every generation, a person must see themselves as if they personally left Egypt,”1 he instructed, leaving it to us to figure out how to make this ancient tale of redemption relevant to us today.
One suggestion was offered by Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn of Lubavitch, the third Rebbe of Chabad, also known as the Tzemach Tzedek. He viewed the rabbinic instruction to drink four cups of wine (or grape juice for those who avoid alcohol) during the Seder as a framework for achieving personal freedom.2
Each cup was instituted to reflect another expression G‑d used to promise the Jews that they would be rescued from Egypt and become a nation with the power to determine their own destiny.3 If we follow this path, the Tzemach Tzedek writes, it can lead us on a personal journey towards freedom from any negative practices that hold us back.
Here is my personal understanding of those four 4 steps to breaking bad habits, based on G‑d’s 4 promises:
G‑d’s first expression of redemption to the Israelites was, “I will take you out” of Egypt. Before you get clean, you must get out of the mud. The first step to breaking free from a habit is to simply stop doing it. Medieval Jewish scholar Maimonides says, “A sinner should abandon his sins,” and suggests that you control your thoughts before they trigger a repeat offence.4 Immediately stop, even if you have already gone at it again.
After the Israelites left Egypt, they were ill at ease with their new identity. G‑d promised: “I will save you,” and supplied them with protective clouds of glory and manna from the sky. The second step on the path to breaking free is to immerse yourself in an alternative, positive reality. When dropping an old habit, adopt a new one to take its place and fill the void. Happiness researcher Gretchen Rubin says that it is much easier to form new habits after a change in life. Adopt your new activity steadily and continuously so it becomes the new you.
G‑d gave the Israelites the holy Torah on Mount Sinai as a roadmap to living a meaningful life. The expression, “I will deliver you,” alludes to the study of Torah, which spiritually and intellectually transforms you. The third step on this journey is to establish the ethical reasoning of your decision and an understanding of the new person you are trying to become. As the Israelites said after receiving the Torah, “naaseh v’nishma” (“we will do and we will understand”). After you “do” by adopting a positive activity, the next step on the journey to change is learning and understanding.
As the Israelites wandered through the desert, G‑d promised them that He would bring them to the Promised Land. Knowing that they would have a place to call their own allowed them to establish an emotional connection with their new selves. This positive emotional bond is reflected in the expression, “I will take you as a nation.” The fourth step on this path is to not only rationalize and understand the person you want to become, but to also fully internalize the change within you, because emotion plays a big part in influencing the decisions we make.
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CNN)
Spanish minister tells UK to ‘not lose temper’ over Gibraltar
- EU officials suggested Gibraltar could be part of Brexit trade talks
- Lord Howard compared Prime Minister Theresa May to Thatcher
(CNN) Spain’s foreign minister has called on British politicians not to lose their temper after a Brexit-fueled dispute over a tiny outcrop of land escalated into talk of war.
Spain ‘surprised’ by war talk
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE BBC)
Egypt Pharaoh statue ‘not Ramses II but different ruler’
16 March 2017
- From the section Middle East
An ancient statue which was pulled from the mud in Cairo is not the Pharaoh Ramses II, but could be another king, Egypt’s antiquities minister has said.
Khaled el-Anani told a news conference the statue was almost certainly Psamtek I, who ruled between 664 and 610BC.
Experts had thought the statue was Ramses, who ruled 600 years earlier, because it was close to a temple dedicated to the ruler.
But one of Psamtek’s five names was found engraved on the huge statue.
Even so, the find is still significant, Mr Anani said.
“If it belongs to this king, then it is the largest statue of the Late Period that was ever discovered in Egypt,” Ahram Online reported him as saying.
The discovery was made after they moved the statue – which was nine metres (29ft) tall originally – from a wasteland in between apartment blocks on the site of the ancient capital, Heliopolis, to the Egyptian museum in central Cairo.
It was found by an Egyptian-German archaeological team, and was partially submerged in water, and had split into a number of parts. Its torso alone weighed three tonnes.
The Ministry of Antiquities said it hoped the two parts could be put back together again.
(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF ‘ANCIENT ORIGINS’ WEBSITE)
A Versatile Plant: What Were the Many Uses of Cannabis in Ancient Egypt?
Cannabis is widely considered to be one of the most widespread options when it comes to medicinal herbs. However, in ancient times the plant’s popularity was far greater, and its use much more common in different aspects of regular life. As things have turned out, modern laws have now prohibited a lot of the cultural and religious practices which had been a part of Egypt’s history and culture for thousands of years. It wasn’t easy to unearth the history and evidence to support these claims, but now that it has been done, let’s take a look at some of the ways in which the ancient Egyptians used cannabis.
Cannabis as Medicine in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptians had uncovered and used the medicinal properties of cannabis even beyond what modern medical science has been able to do so far. The Ebers Papyrus was written roughly around 1550 BC and is one of the oldest finished medical textbooks to have been found so far. It mentions a number of formulas which make use of hemp to alleviate pain and inflammation caused by various diseases and injuries. Apparently, women in particular used marijuana as a way to waive off depression and other psychological problems in the early days of Egypt.
- Cannabis: A Journey Through the Ages
- Did ancient Siberian princess use cannabis to cope with breast cancer?
Ebers Papyrus from National Library of Medicine, Found in Egypt in the 1870s. This prescription for an asthma remedy is to be prepared as a mixture of herbs heated on a brick so that the sufferer could inhale their fumes. (Public Domain)
The oldest medicinal use of the herb in the region may date back even further, to 2000 BC, when it might have been used to treat glaucoma, cataracts, hemorrhoids, vaginal bleeding, and even cancer. It can be estimated that cannabis was probably not a cure, but an alleviation of the symptoms in most cases. Modern medical science on the other hand, is only beginning to establish the fact that cannabis has some truly remarkable pain-relieving properties, along with being a very potent calming agent for the imbalanced nervous systems of patients suffering from Parkinson’s Disease.
Cannabis in Egyptian Religion and Culture
When the mummy of Pharaoh Ramesses II was uncovered and examined back in 1881, traces of cannabis in the remains was the last thing anyone was expecting, but it was there. Since then, a lot of the uncovered mummies have shown similar traces of the herb in their systems, confirming the suspicion that cannabis was indeed a part of the regular culture in ancient Egypt.
In ancient Egypt, cannabis was used for medicinal, religious, and cultural purposes. (Mundo Cannábico/CC)
Seshat, the goddess of wisdom, was often depicted with a leaf of the cannabis plant above her head in paintings from thousands of years ago. Bastet, the feline goddess of war, was also related to the use of cannabis in the region, but more in terms of witchcraft. Evidence also suggests that worshippers may have consumed marijuana in one form or the other during certain religious festivities and rituals.
Seshat, the ancient Egyptian goddess of record-keeping and measurement with a colorful cannabis leaf over her head. (History with a Twist)
Practical Uses of Cannabis
Although it may sound strange if you have not heard about it before, cannabis was actually used in the production of ropes, sails, and fabric in particular. In fact, research suggests that ancient workers used a meticulous technique with the cannabis fiber to break down larger rocks before transporting them to constructions sites. The technique generally involved hammering down the dry cannabis fiber into the cracks of the larger rocks, before soaking them thoroughly in water. As the fabric began to expand it was strong enough to fracture the giant rocks.
- Drugs in Ancient Cultures: A History of Drug Use and Effects
- Surprising 5,000-Year-Old Cannabis Trade: Eurasian Steppe Nomads Were Earliest Pot Dealers
Original knots which were joining the main pieces of the Khufu Boat. The cedar timbers of the boat’s curved hull were lashed together with hemp rope in a technique used until recent times by traditional shipbuilders on the shores of the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean. (kairoinfo4u/CC BY NC SA 2.0)
The herb was so popular in the old days of Egypt that the famous Roman Emperor Aurelian practically imposed a tax on it! If these facts have got you interested, then you can find some information about cannabis in modern Egypt here.
Top Image: An artist’s imaginary depiction of a pharaoh burning herbs (possibly cannabis or blue lotus) in a ritual. (Core Spirit)
BAHAR YEŞILNUR (2014). An ancient treatment from the pages of the Ebers Papyrus. Daily Sabah. Available from: https://www.dailysabah.com/feature/2014/12/31/an-ancient-treatment-from-the-pages-of-the-ebers-papyrus
Claire Rankin (2016). Marijuana use in ancient Egypt. Newstarget. Available from: http://www.newstarget.com/2016-02-26-marijuana-use-in-ancient-egypt.html
Royal Queen Seeds. Cannabis in Egypt. Available from: https://www.royalqueenseeds.com/blog-cannabis-in-egypt-n162