Dinosaur extinction: ‘Asteroid strike was real culprit’

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE BBC)

 

Dinosaur extinction: ‘Asteroid strike was real culprit’

Media caption Prof Paul Wilson: “The impact event is exactly contemporaneous with the extinction”

Was it the asteroid or colossal volcanism that initiated the demise of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago?

This has been a bit of a “to and fro” argument of late, but now a group of scientists has weighed in with what they claim is the definitive answer.

“It was the asteroid ‘wot dun it’!” Prof Paul Wilson told the BBC.

His team’s analysis of ocean sediments shows that huge volcanoes that erupted in India did not change the climate enough to drive the extinction.

Volcanoes can spew enormous volumes of gases into the atmosphere that can both cool and warm the planet.

And the Deccan Traps, as the volcanic terrain in India is known, certainly had massive scale – hundreds of thousands of cubic km of molten rock were erupted onto the land surface over thousands of years.

But the new research from Southampton University’s Prof Wilson, and colleagues from elsewhere in Europe and the US, indicates there is a mismatch in both the effect and timing of the volcanism’s influence.

The group drilled into the North Atlantic seafloor to retrieve its ancient muds.

“The deep ocean sediments are packed full of these microscopic marine organisms called Foraminifera,” Prof Wilson explained.

“You get about a thousand of them in a teaspoon of sediment. And we can use their shells to figure out the chemistry of the ocean and its temperature, so we can study in great detail the environmental changes that are occurring in the run-up to the extinction event.

“And what we discovered is that the only way in which we can get our (climate) model simulations to match the observed temperature changes is to have the volcanic emissions of harmful gases done and dusted a couple of hundred thousand years before the impact event.

“We find the impact event is exactly contemporaneous with the extinction.”

Investigations of a 200km-wide crater under the Gulf of Mexico suggest it is the scar left by the culprit asteroid.

When it hit the Earth, the city-sized object would immediately have generated tsunami and wide-scale fires – in addition to hurling billions of tonnes of debris in all directions.

But what scientists have also established recently is that the asteroid struck rocks rich in sulphur. When this material was vaporised and ejected into the high atmosphere, it would have led to a rapid and deep cooling of the climate (albeit over a relatively short period), making life a struggle for all sorts of plant and animal life.

As the fossil record shows, the dinosaurs, apart from birds, couldn’t get beyond the stressful environmental changes. In contrast, the mammals could and rose to the prominence they enjoy today.

The new study is published in the journal Science. Its lead author is Dr Pincelli Hull from Yale University.


The impact that changed life on Earth

Drill siteImage copyrightNASA
Image captionToday, the asteroid crater is buried under the Gulf of Mexico
  • Scientists now think a 12km-wide object struck Earth 66 million years ago
  • The crater it produced is about 200km wide and is buried mostly offshore
  • On land, it is covered by limestone, but its rim is traced by an arc of sinkholes
  • Experts drilled into the crater to study its rocks and reconstruct the event
  • They say the impact was more than capable of driving a mass extinction
CenoteImage copyrightMAX ALEXANDER/B612/ASTEROID DAY
Image captionMexico’s famous sinkholes (cenotes) have formed in weakened limestone overlying the crater

Hidden Pyramids In The Samoa’s Jungle

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE BBC)

 

Hidden deep in Samoa’s thick jungles, along almost impassible rocky footpaths lie what archaeologists have called the South Pacific’s best-kept secret: star mounds. Around 80 of these ancient, star-shaped platforms have sat abandoned for around 300 years, and even after excavation, their significance continues to baffle experts. Now, though, archaeologists and historians are using the largest of these stone marvels to challenge previously held beliefs about Samoan history.

At 12m high and with a base of 65m by 60m, Pulemelei Mound, which is located on the Samoan island of Savai’i, is one the oldest and largest structures in Polynesia. Often referred to as a pyramid despite its flat top, Pulemelei Mound was most likely built in stages starting in 1,000 CE, and the structure contains eight points, or cogs, giving it the look of a star from above. It is almost squarely oriented with the points of the compass and is surrounded by several smaller mounds.

While some locals and experts believe that the pyramid was used for pigeon-snaring competitions, religious ceremonies or meetings, or as a burial monument or lookout platform, no-one has been able to pinpoint its actual significance. But now, new laser mapping of the area surrounding Pulemelei Mound has recently provided a vital clue to archaeologists.

A vast network of ruins was discovered beneath the area in a 2002-to-2004 excavation, and experts believe it is evidence of an entire pre-colonial settlement that flourished before European discovery in 1722. Experts also say that this new discovery proves that Samoa’s population before colonialism was far larger than previously thought, and they now suggest that the Samoan population mortality rate following colonialism was around 80 to 90% in some areas, a steep and shocking increase from the 20-to-50% estimate that was previously accepted.

(Video by Bill Code, text by Emily Cavanagh)

This video is part of BBC Reel’s Secret Worlds playlist.

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Do Not Be Ignorant Enough To Take-Out Iranian National Monuments

Do Not Be Ignorant Enough To Take-Out Iranian National Monuments

 

The General that President Trump ordered the hit on a couple days ago surprised me, I didn’t expect it. This General was a founding block of the hatred from within parts of Shiite Islam. To many now, this mass murderer is now a martyr for millions. But if President Trump did this with any thoughts turned towards to create a crisis, to get peoples minds off of his impeachment, then what?

 

Lets get to the main topic, President Trump has been threatening Iran that he/we will hit at least 52 of their monuments, personally I believe this to be a horrible idea. You do this, take them out and you will unite all of the population of the Shiite believers against us. You do this foolish thing then retaliation against our own, is a certain. Iran and the believers of hard line Shiite believe that they are now in a Holy War against the West, especially against the U.S.. When President George W. Bush invaded Iraq I believe it was just to one-up his Dad. A lot of people have died because of his tunnel vision. Then we bomb to bits Iraq’s infrastructure and at that time commit another huge miscalculation. W. and Mr. Dick rewarded a lot of great government contracts to American firms who hired Americans and Westerners which kept the people of Iraq unemployed and without basic fundamental services like electricity, running clean water, and food. Folks, we can’t go back into (military actions) in Iraq by doing the very thing that will unite those who hate us, against us in Lebanon, Syria, Iran and Iraq. The Government’s beliefs are the problems one may think, so do not take out our anger on their people, leave them alone. There is a difference in a mental state of war and a religion based mental state of war, the hate and the resolve are much deeper. We are going to now have to fight this Tiger with many Kittens as a part of our Nations new DNA. Taking out their National Monuments, is not a good idea folks.

India: December may be second coldest for Delhi in 100 years

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE HINDUSTAN TIMES OF INDIA)

 

December may be second coldest for Delhi in 100 years

The mean maximum temperature this month till Thursday is 19.84°C. The lowest mean maximum temperature in the city was recorded in 1997 at 17.3°C.

DELHI Updated: Dec 27, 2019 08:15 IST

Jayashree Nandi
Jayashree Nandi

Hindustan Times, New Delhi
Women seen wrapped in shwals and woollens as the national capital witnesses intense cold conditions, in New Delhi, India, on Thursday, December 26, 2019.
Women seen wrapped in shwals and woollens as the national capital witnesses intense cold conditions, in New Delhi, India, on Thursday, December 26, 2019.(Burhaan Kinu/HT PHOTO)

The national capital is likely to record the second coldest December in a century because of significantly low day temperatures, according to an analysis by the regional weather forecasting centre.

The mean maximum temperature this month till Thursday is 19.84°C. The lowest mean maximum temperature in the city was recorded in 1997 at 17.3°C.

The second lowest mean maximum temperature for December was recorded in 1919 at 19.8°C and again in 1929 at 19.8°C. In 1961, the mean maximum for the month was 20 degrees Celsius. Until December 26 this year, the mean maximum is almost the same as recorded in 1919 and 1929, but the weather office is expecting the mean for the entire month to be lower as Delhi since likely to see at least two to three more “severe” cold days.

Also Watch l North India continues to reel under severe cold, temperature may dip further

North India continues to reel under severe cold, temperature may dip further
Cold wave intensifies in North India as states witness dip in mercury on Wednesday. People in Gorakhpur, Punjab face severe cold conditions. Cold intensified in the national capital too. Minimum temperature was 6 degrees Celsius.
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“We are expecting the mean maximum temperature this year to be in the range of 19.5 to 19.6 degrees Celsius. But we have to wait and see until December 31,” said Kuldeep Shrivastava, head of regional weather forecasting centre (RWFC).

There has been a cold spell in Delhi for the past 13 days, if data from all weather stations except Safdarjung is considered. In 1997, there was a cold spell for 13 days in December, but data from Safdarjung station was considered for it.

On Thursday, another “severe” cold day was registered again in Delhi with the maximum temperature 13.4°C, seven degrees below normal, and minimum of 5.8°C, two degrees below normal.

A severe cold day is defined as one in which the maximum temperature is at least 6.4 degrees below normal and the minimum temperature is under 10ºC.

IMD’s Friday bulletin said that cold day to severe cold day conditions would continue in many pockets of north India due to the persistence of cold northwesterly winds in the lower levels over north-west India, and other localised meteorological conditions. Cold day conditions are likely to abate from December 31, the IMD bulletin said.

A fresh western disturbance is likely to affect the western Himalayan region from December 30, bringing widespread rain and hailstorm in many parts of northwest and central India on December 31 and January 1, according to IMD.

“We are expecting light rain to begin in Delhi and NCR (National Capital Region) from December 31. Wind speeds will also pick up significantly. Rains may continue till January 3, and a cold wave is likely to set in again as wind direction changes to northwesterly. We are not sure yet if there will be a cold spell also,” said Shrivastava.

A press release by IMD on Thursday said: “The most severity [of cold/severe cold day conditions] was observed on December 25 when majority of stations in the region were recorded seven to 12 degrees C below normal with actual maximum temperature of the day varying between nine to 15 degrees Celsius.” The lowest day maximum temperature in the northern plains, 9°C, was reported from Ganganagar and Chandigarh.

The main difference between a cold spell and a cold wave is that the former involves lower-than-normal maximum or day temperatures for 2-3 days in a row while the latter involves lower-than-expected minimum or night temperatures for more than one day. On December 29, we could see both in Delhi according to RWFC.

Air quality inches towards ‘severe’

Air quality in the national capital continued to remain in the ‘very poor’ zone on Thursday, as winds slowed down and a moderate fog layer did not allow pollutants to disperse. The air quality is likely to plunge to ‘severe’ on December 28-29 after wind speed slows down and as there is an increase in dense fog.

The overall air quality index on Thursday, as recorded by the Central Pollution Control Board’s 4 pm bulletin, was 349 in the ‘very poor’ zone.

Scientists at the India Meteorological Department said the average wind speed was 8-10 kmph, which is not
favorable for dispersion of pollutants.

20 Years Ago Today

20 Years Ago Today

 

20 Years ago today my life turned around. Yes today is Christmas Day so yes my wife and I got married on Christmas Day of 1999. Many time I wish that we had waited until 12-31 1999, the last day of the century. The last day of the world where computers were going to crash and the world to burn from the flames of it. No, its just that when you marry on Christmas Day and you have small children it is never your Anniversary, only Christmas Day. But 20 years ago today my life changed for ever. This is my salute to my Bride tonight, I hope that you are also able to look back at the past with a smile and be able for a thank you or two, or three to God and to your spouse.

6 And A Half Years Since I’ve Worked

It’s Been 6 1/2 Years Now Since I’ve Worked

 

This letter tonight is just the ramblings of an old broken down used to be truck driver who hasn’t worked since June of 2013. That was the day that I totally knew that I couldn’t even attempt to work any longer, my body just would not let me. This is just an old guy sitting at his computer just before sunup on Christmas Eve morning whom hasn’t been to bed tonight but being that I am still awake I though I would try to write a good short story which just may bore each of us off to sleep.

 

I start I guess I started getting my ways of thinking from attitudes passed on to me by my Mom about such things as work ethics and on how a ‘good’ man would/should behave. Then man, I failed, a bunch. I bounced around from several types of jobs up until after I moved to Texas at the age of 24. It was at this age that I pretty much became self taught about how to drive a commercial truck for a living, it is a bunch of miracles that I didn’t kill my self or some one else during those first 5 years. Before I was able to lie my way into my first truck driving job (you could sometimes get away with that back in 1981) I had worked at several types of low paying jobs where you had to work 80 hours plus every week just to survive financially. So I was able to get into an industry that I had hoped would make a better living, one thing that I honestly ever figured was that I would probably die one day in the sleeper of my truck in some Truck Stop parking lot. I never figured that I would ever have anything of real material value plus I figured that I would be dead way before retirement age any way. Turns out I was retired at 56 years and 10 months of age, not my normal retirement age set at 67 and 3 months. If it wasn’t for the income I am blessed with, benefits that I worked for and earned, I couldn’t have personally physically survived. You see, I am blessed to live in a Nation with Constitutional guardianship.

 

Turns out, that time came, the time I knew it was impossible to even try to attempt to work any more. The moment that you really realize that you are through working whether you want to be or not is a very cold sobering slap to the face. Five months and one week later after I first filed with Social Security I was accepted so we have been getting along okay on SS disability and what I get from the VA Disability. I feel very blessed because I never figured that I would live long enough to ever retire, turns out my body retired me. I was just sitting here at home this morning when I realized that it has actually been 6 1/2 years since my last day of work, I am astonished that it has been that long, I am indeed a very blessed, ugly fat old man. I hope you are able to have a great Christmas Holiday Season, stay safe, have some fun, God bless.

Egypt: Why archaeologists were ‘terrified by lifelike discovery’ hidden in Pyramid

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE UK EXPRESS NEWS)

 

Egypt exposed: Why archaeologists were ‘terrified by lifelike discovery’ hidden in Pyramid

ARCHAEOLOGISTS were left “terrified” after making a “lifelike” discovery in the Pyramid of Meidum, that is helping to piece together one region of this astonishing ancient civilization.

Egypt: Archaeologists ‘terrified’ by pyramid discovery says expert

The find was made in Meidum, an archaeological site in Lower Egypt, consisting of a large pyramid and several mud-brick mastabas. This pyramid was Egypt’s first straight-sided one, but it partially collapsed due to its structure, exposing an inner core. Here, archaeologist made discoveries that helped them understand more about this ancient civilization developed their pyramid-building techniques.

But, it was revealed during Amazon Prime’s “Secrets of Archaeology” how they also got quite a scare.

The 2014 series explained: “South of Saqqara, near the oasis of Fayoum, archaeologists discovered a pyramid of historical importance because of its unique features.

“The Pyramid of Meidum was built for the Pharaoh Sneferu, founder of the Fourth Dynasty, but this pyramid is different from all the others.

“The monument was originally a step pyramid like the one in Saqqara, but here in Meidum, the architects working for Pharaoh Sneferu, believed they had found the secret of the perfect form.

The lifelike statue was found in the pyrmaid

The lifelike statue was found in the pyramid (Image: AMAZON/GETTY)

The Pyramid of Meidum

The Pyramid of Meidum (Image: WIKI)

They were terrified by their intense expression, which they believed was too lifelike

Secrets of Archaeology

“They would abandon the previous step structure, fill in the platforms and make the line of the pyramid smooth and sloping.”

The documentary went on to detail how statues of the ancient pharaoh and his wife were found in the rubble.

It added: “It was a revolutionary concept, but something went wrong.

“The bases of the four external supporting walls fell in, and the blocks of limestone slipped downwards revealing the internal part that we see today.

“Like the pyramid in Saqqara, the Meidum pyramid was also surrounded by tombs of princes and dignitaries.

READ MORE: Egypt shock: Why 4,500-year-old tomb inscription sparked end of the world prediction

The design of the pyramid

The design of the pyramid (Image: WIKI)

“Statues of Prince Rahotep and his wife on display at the Cairo Museum.”

But, the archaeologists had an eerie experience.

The series explained: “When archaeologists found here and when archaeologists discovered the statues, they were terrified by their intense expression, which they believed was too lifelike to be that of mere statue.

“Pharaoh Sneferu had another pyramid built, the pyramid Dahshur, universally known as the Bent Pyramid.

“Dahshur is the modern name of this area south of Saqqara, another monumental construction, it was worked on by thousands of builders and dozens of architects.

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Two statues were found inside

Two statues were found inside (Image: WIKI)

Their expressions terrified archaeologists

Their expressions terrified archaeologists (Image: WIKI)

“While a step pyramid may have provided a stair by which the king ascended to heaven after his death, the true pyramids probably reflect a change to a solar cult, symbolising the Sun’s rays radiating down.”

The pyramid at Meidum is thought to be just the second pyramid built after Djoser’s and may have been originally built for Huni, the last pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, and continued by Sneferu.

The architect was a successor to the famous Imhotep, the inventor of the stone-built pyramid.

The collapse of the pyramid is likely due to the modifications made to Imhotep’s pyramid design as well as the decisions taken twice during construction to extend the pyramid.

Archaeologists Discover Ancient Greek Royal Tombs Dating Back 3,500 Years

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF NPR NEWS)

 

Archaeologists Discover Ancient Greek Royal Tombs Dating Back 3,500 Years

An aerial view of a 3,500-year-old tomb discovered near the southwestern Greek town of Pylos. Recovered grave goods included a golden seal ring and a golden Egyptian amulet.

AP

A team of American archaeologists has discovered two large ancient Greek royal tombs dating back some 3,500 years near the site of the ancient city of Pylos in southern Greece. The findings cast a new light on the role of the ancient city — mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey — in Mediterranean trade patterns of the Late Bronze Age.

Each of the two tombs — one about 39 feet in diameter and the other about 28 feet — was built in a dome-shape structure known as a tholos.

This golden pendant of the Egyptian goddess Hathor was found in one of two 3,500-year-old tombs.

Greek Culture Ministry/AP

Among the findings inside the tombs were evidence of gold-lined floors, a golden seal ring and a gold pendant with the image of the ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor. The amulet suggests that Pylos traded with Egypt during Greece’s Mycenaean civilization, which lasted roughly between 1650 and 1100 B.C. Homer’s epics are set in the latter stages of this period.

The discovery was made by Jack L. Davis and Sharon R. Stocker, an archaeological team from the University of Cincinnati. They had previously uncovered another burial site nearby in 2015 known as the Griffin Warrior grave. That site yielded significant findings including gold and silver treasure, jewelry and a long bronze sword believed to have possibly belonged to one of the early kings of Pylos.

China: World Expo history on show in Shanghai

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF SHANGHAI CHINA’S ‘SHINE’ NEWS NETWORK)

 

World Expo history on show in Shanghai

Hu Min
World Expo history on show in Shanghai

Jiang Xiaowei / SHINE

A visitor examines documents related to the history of the World Expo.

World Expo history on show in Shanghai

Jiang Xiaowei / SHINE

Documents related to the World Expo are on display at the World Expo Museum in Huangpu District.

An exhibition that opened at the World Expo Museum in Huangpu District on Wednesday features around 300 exhibits recording the 168-year history of the event.

“Read the World — Exhibition of Expo Historical Documentations” has four sections — Expos Described by Pens, Expos in Painting and Crafts, Art Across the Globe, and Composing the Future.

It includes reports, awards, certificates, newspapers, journals, design sketches and novels related to the event in many languages.

“The display traces the history of the World Expo and provides a wide range and different aspects of the expo,” said Vicente Gonzalez Loscertales, secretary general of the Bureau of International Expositions.

The exhibits include 3D Expo 1862, a book with 3D Expo images, a perfecscope for viewing stereographs in the 19th century, a paper peepshow dating back to the 19th century, a series of prints of Crystal Palace (the building that housed the 1851 Great Exhibition), Crystal Palace cigarette cards issued by a British cigarette maker in 1937, the certificate of appointment of the advisory committee of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904, a Crystal Palace Theater advertising leaflet, books with design sketches of Expo pavilions, designers’ notes and Le Petit Journal, a popular newspaper which presented colorful engravings of pavilions at the 1900 Expo in Paris, as well as tickets, passports and invitation letters from previous expos.

A wooden fruit platter from the Guinea Pavilion at the 2015 event in Milan, commemorative medals of the 1970 Expo in Osaka, postcards of different expos, an Underwood typewriter, the phototype of the giant typewriter exhibited at the 1915 Expo, and award winning phonographs exhibited in Paris in 1900 and St Louis in 1904, and Tagine, a type of North African cookware from the Morocco Pavilion of the 2015 Milan Expo are also featured.

The New Record of Traveling around the World by Li Gui (1842-1903) in 1878 is also on display.

The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) government was invited to form a delegation to the 1876 Expo in Philadelphia and customs officials at that time were mostly foreigners. Li, secretary of the deputy commissioner of Ningbo Customs, was the only Chinese person in the delegation. In 1878, Li published the book which was the first detailed Chinese monograph recording the World Expo.

The exhibition will run through February 9. Lectures and concerts will be hosted during the exhibition.

Meanwhile, a library with 100,000 collections will open next year inside the museum.

The museum has valuable collections in 14 languages related to the World Expo dating back to 1831.

World Expo history on show in Shanghai

Jiang Xiaowei / SHINE

A visitor takes pictures during her visit to the World Expo exhibition.

6 Things You Never Knew About Mount Rushmore

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF TRAVEL TRIVIA)
6 Things You Never Knew About Mount Rushmore

Western South Dakota isn’t lacking in incredible sights. There are the Badlands and the Needles of the Black Hills, and those are just the starters. But the highlight of any trip to this land of Native American history and odd rock outcroppings is a visit to Mount Rushmore National Memorial where giant carved heads of four former presidents keep vigil.

The majestic sculpture celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2016, though its stony faces remain much the same as they did when its construction was completed in 1941. The 60-foot-high granite monument features the towering head portraits of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. Here are a few things about Mount Rushmore you might not know.

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Presidential Images Were Not the First Choice

Presidential Images Were Not the First Choice

Credit: JMichl/ iStock

Mount Rushmore was the brainchild of South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson who was moved to memorialize and carve iconic historical figures into a mountainside. He wanted to promote tourism to a region of the state that was otherwise mostly ignored and came up with the idea of the massive project in 1923. Robinson’s initial plans did not include the political figures admired at the monument today.

Robinson thought a carved tribute featuring Western heroes such as Lewis and Clark, Buffalo Bill Cody, and Lakota leader Chief Red Cloud was the perfect choice for the location. He enlisted the help of renowned American sculptor Gutzon Borglum, who convinced him the monument would be better received if it had a more national focus. They settled on four presidents who they felt best represented the country.

It Was Built Using a Lot of Dynamite

It Was Built Using a Lot of Dynamite

Credit: fergregory/ iStock

Visitors to Mount Rushmore stand in awe of its grandeur and scale. Little do they know of the enormity of Robinson and Borglum’s pet undertaking in real-time. The project employed over 400 men and took fourteen years to complete. Most of the men were miners who had come to South Dakota in search of the promised gold in the Black Hills.

An incredible 450,000 tons of rock had to be removed for the project. It was decided the best way to do this was with dynamite, so 90 percent of the monument was carved in this way. Once the blasting was completed, the finer details of the sculpture were attended to. This entailed lowering finishers down the 500-foot face of the mountainside in bosun chairs. It was dangerous work, yet thankfully, no one was seriously injured or killed.

It Has Been Known by Several Names

It Has Been Known by Several Names

Credit: Sharon Day/ Shutterstock

The mountain containing the carving has been known by several different names throughout the years. The Sioux called it Six Grandfathers after the earth, sky, and four cardinal directions. American settlers in the area referred to it as Cougar Mountain, Sugarloaf Mountain, Slaughterhouse Mountain, or Keystone Cliffs. It wasn’t until 1930 that the beloved icon became officially named and recognized as Mount Rushmore.

The mountain was actually named after New York attorney Charles E. Rushmore, who passed through on his way back from a business trip. When he found out the mountain had no official designation, he thought it would be a good idea to name it after him. The wealthy investor eventually got his way.

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Mount Rushmore Is a Controversial Monument

Mount Rushmore Is a Controversial Monument

Credit: Tbennert/ Wikimedia Commons

The Lakota Sioux were promised an area that included the Black Hills in perpetuity by the U.S. government in the Treaty of 1868, but forever only lasted until gold was discovered in the 1870s. The land was subsequently taken back by force, adding to the ongoing conflicts of the time between the government and the Plains Indians. In South Dakota specifically, the Battle of Wounded Knee was a grievous defeat for the Native Americans.

The Sioux still consider the Black Hills area as sacred ground. To some, the monument represents the oppression faced by the Native Americans. Visitors to South Dakota can pay homage to the history of the area by also visiting the Crazy Horse Memorial, a still-in-progress sculpture that, once completed, will be the world’s largest sculpture at 641 feet long and 563 feet tall.

The Monument Once Had Its Own Baseball Team

The Monument Once Had Its Own Baseball Team

Credit: cmannphoto/ iStock

Gutzon Borglum’s son Lincoln, who also worked on the project, was a big baseball fan. He socialized with the daily workers by talking baseball and sharing friendly banter while keeping up with the scores on the radio. Their common love for the sport prompted the Borglums to organize an amateur team. Workers became vetted for their ability to handle a baseball bat as well as a jackhammer.

The local community enthusiastically cheered the newly-formed baseball team called the Rushmore Drillers. The team was good enough to make it to the semi-finals of the State Amateur Baseball Tournament in the late 1930s. Even though they placed third, Borglum hosted both the Drillers and their opponents at his home for dinner and more sports talk. The team disbanded when work on the monument was completed.

It Has a Secret Room

It Has a Secret Room

Credit: fstockfoto/ iStock

Borglum wanted to add a secret room behind the monument where important documents and historical memorabilia could be stored. The so-called Hall of Records would be accessed by an 800-foot granite staircase with a giant bronze eagle over the door leading to the secret room.

Only part of the tunnel had been blasted when the funds ran out in 1939. The idea of a Hall of Records dwindled following Borglum’s death in 1941 and the official declaration of the monument’s completion. It was rejuvenated again in 1998 when the National Park Service finished what was started long ago and installed Mount Rushmore’s best-known secret. Items of interest continue to be placed there for future discovery.