Go To Prayers, Then Go Kill: This Is The Devil’s Way, Not G-d’s

GO TO PRAYERS, THEN GO KILL: THIS IS THE WAY OF THE DEVIL, NOT OF G-D

 

I know that I am not the most intelligent person in the world, but I do always insist that I speak honestly with you. The only agenda that I have with you is for me to be totally honest with you, to never lie to you. Before I write an article to you I always spend quite a bit of time in prayer asking for total guidance in every word that I type to you. Not once in my life have I ever spent time in prayer then when I was finished did I go somewhere and attack another person. Not once have I been in a Church meeting where the one praying, Minister or otherwise, condone or tell those in the prayer group or Congregation to now out outside and attack anyone, never!

 

In August of 2000 my Mom whom I love dearly was killed by a young man who later got a reckless driving ticket, which he did totally deserve as he was driving very reckless. If I had not been a devout Christian, that man would have been dead before that month was out. But as a Christian I was able to forgive him. He did not intend to kill my Mom or anyone else. He was just acting immature, he even had his five-year old son in the pickup with him at the time. If I had killed that driver that little boy would have grown up without a Dad. Sometimes in life things that happen hurt a person a lot, somethings simply anger us to the point of wanting to tear a person’s head off but as a Christian, we are not allowed to follow our carnal thoughts. When we get angry, when we are hurting we all need to go to a quiet place and spend time in prayer with G-d our Creator. For those who are wondering why I am spelling G-d in this article, it is for our Jewish friends for this is a way that they show respect to the Creator of us all.

 

Creator of us all, please think about that for a moment. G-d created every one of us, Jew and Gentile. For those who don’t know, the Biblical word Gentile is everyone who is not of %100 pure Hebrew/Jewish blood. Remember even Jesus and His Apostles plainly said over and over again, to the Jew first, then to the Gentile. We are all able to be saved through the Blood of Christ, before Christ, only the Jewish people could be saved. So, I am a Gentile and almost everyone else on the planet today are also Gentiles. This includes Christians, Muslims, Persians, Buddhist, Hindu’s, and everyone else. Folks we are equals in the sight of G-d and we all have no right to be an aggressor toward another person.

 

Now I am going to talk with you about the issues going on in Jerusalem, the Temple Mount, and at the Western Wall for a moment. Out side of the Islamic Faith I know of no ‘Place of Prayer’ where the Preacher ‘Iman’ fires up the folks in the pray meeting so once prayers are over to leave the building and to commit acts of violence including killing people! Folks these events going on right now in Jerusalem are Satanic! In the name of G-d, no one is allowed to cause harm to another person! It is very common that when Friday prayers are finished on the Temple Mount the people go to the top of the Western Wall and throw rocks down on the Jewish people below. Today after the Friday prayers there has been huge physical protest that are condoned by Islamic Iman from the Mosque. Folks this is pure evil, G-d has nothing to do with those who are committing these acts of physical aggression. If your Preacher, your Rabbi, or your Iman are telling you to go commit violence, then you are listing to the words of a Demon, not of a servant of G-d!

 

 

President Trump Did Not Hurt The ‘Middle-East’ Peace Process

 

As those of you who know me, you know very well that I am not a fan of President Trump at all. I still believe that he will be impeached before the November 2018 elections because of his many illegal actions before, during and after the past election. I am simply making my point clear to new readers that I am not a fan of his at all. But, yesterdays (12-06-2017) comments he made about the U.S. recognizing that Jerusalem is the rightful and historic Capital of the Nation of Israel is one of the very few things that I agree with him on. Jerusalem has been the Capital of the Hebrew/Jewish people for at least 2,600 years. Yet I do believe that Jerusalem is the Capital of all people of Palestine, Jewish and otherwise. In fact, I do believe that Jerusalem is the ‘City of God’ so Jerusalem should be considered the whole Worlds Capital City. Yes I know that this view would make all Nations current Capitals actually secondary Capitals to Jerusalem. You see, I believe the Scriptures so I know that after Armageddon that the ‘New Jerusalem’ will come down from Heaven and sit over the ruins of the current Jerusalem and that ‘The Christ’ will rule all of the World from the Temple Mount for evermore.

 

Now, let’s get to this Trump speech yesterday and this farce called the ‘Middle-East Peace Process’. The reason that I call it a farce is because there never has been a ‘Middle-East Peace Process’ and there never will be one. Reality is that there could be peace in all of Palestine if today all of the Islamic terrorist groups would throw all of their weapons into the Sea. If this happened Israel would be forced by all of the World Governments to except a binding two State settlement solution. I believe that the vast majority of the citizens of Israel would also force their Government to adhere to peace, at once, even the Hawks within the Government would be forced to lay down their arms.

 

Here is another reality though, if Israel were to throw all of their weapons into the Sea today, there would be no such thing as a living Jew in Palestine, or even a Jewish graveyard tomorrow. The reason is the great hate of the believers of Islam toward the Jewish People. The Islamic Countries do not want peace with Israel, they want there to be no such thing as Israel. The whole concept of Middle-East peace talks is just for ‘outside’ viewers who want to feel good about themselves. Palestine is the center point of Armageddon, there will be a time where there won’t be one stone left upon another in Jerusalem. Only through ignorance, blindness, or just plain stupidity some people believe that Islam will ever tolerate Jews, Christians, Buddhist, Hindu’s or any other non-Islamic believers to occupy Palestine, it is not going to happen. Even if it did happen that there was no such thing as the Nation of Israel the Sunni’s and the Shiite’s would have a Civil War between themselves thus turning Jerusalem and all of Palestine into their own waste land.

 

So, what President Trump did yesterday was just words because Jerusalem has been the Capital of the Jewish People for over 2,600 years and the claimed Capital of most Islamic Believers for about 1,400 years. Israel has had its Government facilities in Jerusalem for decades now, what Mr. Trump did was just symbolic words. There will be some bloodshed I am sure over Mr. Trumps statement yet in reality those who commit these terrorist acts are not even religious Zealots, they are and have always been Demonic Zealots. For in the name of God, no one harms another, only in the name of the Devil Himself does one person go out and commit bloodshed upon another person. It is simple, God is peace and kindness, the Devil is hate and violence. If a person is committing violence, they are worshiping and serving Satan, not God! So, do not blame Mr. Trump for the coming bloodshed, blame the ones committing the bloodshed!!!

 

 

Jerusalem, Israel, And The Palestinian People

Jerusalem, Israel, And The Palestinian People

 

So, tomorrow December the 6th President Trump is supposed to say whether or not he is going to officially recognize Jerusalem as the Capital of Israel and if the U.S. is going to move our Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. So, this article this evening is simply my thoughts on this issue, I am not consulting other writers nor any pre-written documents. I am only going by articles that I have already read during my lifetime, up to this point in time. I know that no matter what I say, I am going to get a lot of people angry simply because I don’t agree with them.

Today the President of Turkey, Mr. Erdogan threatened to cut relations with Israel if Mr. Trump goes ahead with the Jerusalem Capital issue. To me, this is a fraudulent concept, if Mr. Erdogan wants to cut relations with any country it should be the U.S. not Israel. Israel cannot control what comes out of the mouth of Donald Trump, no one can. It is said that the whole of the ‘Arab League’ will cause many deaths if Mr. Trump goes through with this announcement. These type of threats help show the ‘low road’ of the Islamic leaders, not their intelligence. It is also because of threats like this that would cause a narcissists like Trump to not bow down to such a threat because it would/will make him look weak and in this case, that is actually true.

Now, for my personal thoughts on how to make the Jerusalem Capital issue work for all sides, yet at the same time not make any side totally happy. Isn’t that pretty much what the definition of what a compromise is? My idea is for Jerusalem to be declared the Capital of Palestine, all of Palestine. This would encompass all of Palestine and all the people of Palestine, Israeli Jews, Israeli Arabs, the people of Gaza and of the West Bank. This way it is everyone’s Capital. All people of this region, no matter if they are Israeli Jews or residents of the ‘so called’ Palestinians of the West Bank can prove that they are capable of recognizing each others right to exist, in peace with each other.

Because of the current security issues raised by terrorist groups like Hamas, Hezbollah, ISIS and the PLO plus the fact that Jerusalem was the Capital of Israel at least 1,600 years before Mohammad was even born, Israel would have to have control of the security issues within all of the city. Maybe in time these folks who are hell-bent on violence will mature into civilized human beings and the ‘walls’ of security can be let down. Israel on their side would need to allow the Palestinian people to have such things as their Embassy in Eastern Jerusalem once there is a two State agreement in place. All sides of this issue should be allowed to call Jerusalem their Capital. Jerusalem is the ‘City of God’ and it should be able to be an ‘International’ City. Yet the only way for this to come about is if groups like Hamas who refuse the existence of the State of Israel to lay down all of their weapons. Israel can not allow its citizens to continue to be fodder to murderers, so until all Islamic groups in the Palestine region agree to commit no violence, there can not be a safe and secure two State compromise.

Another reality is that even though Mr. Trump seems to think that he decides if Jerusalem is the Capital of Israel, he actually has no say so in the matter. Jerusalem is and has been the Capital of the people of Israel for more than 2,600 years. It is God who decided that Jerusalem is His City. The world can call Tel Aviv Israels Capital, but it has never been Israels Capital, Jerusalem is. But there is no reason that all of the people of Palestine can not call Jerusalem their Capital as it is the Capital of all of Palestine.

 

 

History Of Jewish Temples On The Temple Mount: Beginning In 957 B.C.

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF WIKIPEDIA)

 

The Hebrew name given in the Hebrew Bible for the building complex is either Beit YHWH (House of Yahweh, or Jehovah), Beit HaElohim “House of God”, or simply Beiti “my house”, Beitekhah “your house” etc. The term hekhal “hall” or main building is often translated “temple” in older English Bibles. In rabbinical literature the temple is Beit HaMikdash, “The Sanctified House”, and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name.

First Temple[edit]

The Hebrew Bible says that the First Temple was built in 957 BCE[1] by King Solomon.[2] According to the Book of Deuteronomy, as the sole place of Israelite sacrifice (Deuteronomy 12:2-27), the Temple replaced the Tabernacle constructed in the Sinai Desert under the auspices of Moses, as well as local sanctuaries, and altars in the hills.[3] This temple was sacked a few decades later by Shoshenq IPharaoh of Egypt.[4]

Although efforts were made at partial reconstruction, it was only in 835 BCE when Jehoash, King of Judah in the second year of his reign invested considerable sums in reconstruction, only to have it stripped again for Sennacherib, King of Assyria c. 700 BCE. The First Temple was totally destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE (425 BCE according to historical Jewish sources) when they sacked the city.[5]

Second Temple[edit]

According to the Book of Ezra, construction of the Second Temple was authorized by Cyrus the Great and began in 538 BCE, after the fall of the Babylonian Empire the year before. It was completed 23 years later, on the third day of Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the Great (12 March 515 BCE),[6] dedicated by the Jewish governor Zerubbabel. However, with a full reading of the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah, there were four edicts to build the Second Temple, which were issued by three kings. Cyrus in 536 BCE, which is recorded in the first chapter of Ezra. Next, Darius I of Persia in 519 BCE, which is recorded in the sixth chapter of Ezra. Third, Artaxerxes I of Persia in 457 BCE, which was the seventh year of his reign, and is recorded in the seventh chapter of Ezra. Finally, by Artaxerxes again in 444 BCE in the second chapter of Nehemiah.[7] Also, despite the fact that the new temple was not as extravagant or imposing as its predecessor, it still dominated the Jerusalem skyline and remained an important structure throughout the time of Persian suzerainty. Moreover, the temple narrowly avoided being destroyed again in 332 BCE when the Jews refused to acknowledge the deification of Alexander the Great of Macedonia. Alexander was allegedly “turned from his anger” at the last minute by astute diplomacy and flattery. Further, after the death of Alexander on 13 June 323 BCE, and the dismembering of his empire, the Ptolemies came to rule over Judea and the Temple. Under the Ptolemies, the Jews were given many civil liberties and lived content under their rule. However, when the Ptolemaic army was defeated at Panium by Antiochus III of the Seleucids in 198 BCE, this policy changed. Antiochus wanted to Hellenize the Jews, attempting to introduce the Greek pantheon into the temple. Moreover, a rebellion ensued and was brutally crushed, but no further action by Antiochus was taken, and when Antiochus died in 187 BCE at Luristan, his son Seleucus IV Philopator succeeded him. However, his policies never took effect in Judea, since he was assassinated the year after his ascension.

Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded his older brother to the Seleucid throne and immediately adopted his father’s previous policy of universal Hellenisation. The Jews rebelled again and Antiochus, in a rage, retaliated in force. Considering the previous episodes of discontent, the Jews became incensed when the religious observances of Sabbath and circumcision were officially outlawed. When Antiochus erected a statue of Zeus in their temple and Hellenic priests began sacrificing pigs (the usual sacrifice offered to the Greek gods in the Hellenic religion), their anger began to spiral. When a Greek official ordered a Jewish priest to perform a Hellenic sacrifice, the priest (Mattathias) killed him. In 167 BCE, the Jews rose up en masse behind Mattathias and his five sons to fight and win their freedom from Seleucid authority. Mattathias’ son Judas Maccabaeus, now called “The Hammer”, re-dedicated the temple in 165 BCE and the Jews celebrate this event to this day as a major part of the festival of Hanukkah.

The temple was rededicated under Judas Maccabaeus in 164 BCE.[2] During the Roman era, Pompey entered (and thereby desecrated) the Holy of Holies in 63 BCE, but left the Temple intact.[8][9][10] In 54 BCE, Crassus looted the Temple treasury,[11][12] only for him to die the year after at the Battle of Carrhae against Parthia. According to folklore, he was executed by having molten gold poured down his throat. When news of this reached the Jews, they revolted again, only to be put down in 43 BCE.

Around 20 BCE, the building was renovated and expanded by Herod the Great and became known as Herod’s Temple. It was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE during the Siege of Jerusalem. During the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Romans in 132–135 CE, Simon bar Kokhba and Rabbi Akiva wanted to rebuild the Temple, but bar Kokhba’s revolt failed and the Jews were banned from Jerusalem (except for Tisha B’Av) by the Roman Empire. Emperor Julian allowed to have the Temple rebuilt but the Galilee earthquake of 363 ended all attempts ever since.

After the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem in the 7th century, Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered the construction of an Islamic shrine, the Dome of the Rock, on the site of the Temple. The shrine has stood on the mount since 691 CE; the al-Aqsa Mosque, from roughly the same period, also stands in the Temple courtyard.

Recent history[edit]

The Temple Mount, along with the entire Old City of Jerusalem, was captured from Jordan by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War, allowing Jews once again to pray at the holy site.[13][14][clarification needed]Jordan had occupied East Jerusalem and the Temple Mount immediately following Israel’s declaration of independence on May 14, 1948. Israel officially unified East Jerusalem, including the Temple Mount, with the rest of Jerusalem in 1980 under the Jerusalem Law, though United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared the Jerusalem Law to be in violation of international law.[15] The Muslim Waqf, based in Jordan, has administrative control of the Temple Mount.

Location[edit]

There are four theories as to where the Temple stood; where the Dome of the Rock is now located, to the north of the Dome of the Rock (Professor Asher Kaufman), to the east of the Dome of the Rock (Professor Joseph Patrich of the Hebrew University).[16] and to the south of the Temple Mount on Mount Ophel.[17][18][19][20]

Physical layout[edit]

Remnants of the 1st century Stairs of Ascent, discovered by archaeologist Benjamin Mazar, to the entrance of the Temple Courtyard. Pilgrims coming to make sacrifices at the Temple would have entered and exited by this stairway.

The Temple of Solomon or First Temple consisted of three main elements:

and the Temple building itself, with
  • the larger hekhal, or Holy Place, called the “greater house” in 2 Chr. 3:5 and the “temple” in 1 Kings 6:17, and
  • the smaller “inner sanctum”, known as the Holy of Holies or Kodesh HaKodashim.

In the case of the last and most elaborate structure, the Herodian Temple, the structure consisted of the wider Temple precinct, the restricted Temple courts, and the Temple building itself:

  • Temple precinct, located on the extended Temple Mount platform, and including the Court of the Gentiles
  • Court of the Women or Ezrat HaNashim
  • Court of the Israelites, reserved for ritually pure Jewish men
  • Court of the Priests, whose relation to the Temple Court is interpreted in different ways by scholars
  • Temple Court or Azarah, with the Brazen Laver (kiyor), the Altar of Burnt Offerings (mizbe’ah), the Place of Slaughtering, and the Temple building itself
The Temple edifice had three distinct chambers:
  • Temple vestibule or porch (ulam)
  • Temple sanctuary (hekhal or heikal), the main part of the building
  • Holy of Holies (Kodesh HaKodashim or debir), the innermost chamber

According to the Talmud, the Women’s Court was to the east and the main area of the Temple to the west.[21] The main area contained the butchering area for the sacrifices and the Outer Altar on which portions of most offerings were burned. An edifice contained the ulam (antechamber), the hekhal (the “sanctuary”), and the Holy of Holies. The sanctuary and the Holy of Holies were separated by a wall in the First Temple and by two curtains in the Second Temple. The sanctuary contained the seven branched candlestick, the table of showbread and the Incense Altar.

The main courtyard had thirteen gates. On the south side, beginning with the southwest corner, there were four gates:

  • Shaar Ha’Elyon (the Upper Gate)
  • Shaar HaDelek (the Kindling Gate), where wood was brought in
  • Shaar HaBechorot (the Gate of Firstborns), where people with first-born animal offerings entered
  • Shaar HaMayim (the Water Gate), where the Water Libation entered on Sukkot/the Feast of Tabernacles

On the north side, beginning with the northwest corner, there were four gates:

  • Shaar Yechonyah (The Gate of Jeconiah), where kings of the Davidic line enter and Jeconiah left for the last time to captivity after being dethroned by the King of Babylon
  • Shaar HaKorban (The gate of the Offering), where priests entered with kodshei kodashim offerings
  • Shaar HaNashim (The Women’s Gate), where women entered into the Azara or main courtyard to perform offerings[22]
  • Shaar Hashir (The Gate of Song), where the Levites entered with their musical instruments

On the east side was Shaar Nikanor, between the Women’s Courtyard and the main Temple Courtyard, which had two minor doorways, one on its right and one on its left. On the western wall, which was relatively unimportant, there were two gates that did not have any name.

The Mishnah lists concentric circles of holiness surrounding the Temple: Holy of Holies; Sanctuary; Vestibule; Court of the Priests; Court of the Israelites; Court of the Women; Temple Mount; the walled city of Jerusalem; all the walled cities of the Land of Israel; and the borders of the Land of Israel.

Temple services[edit]

Model of Second Temple made by Michael Osnis from Kedumim.

The Temple was the place where offerings described in the course of the Hebrew Bible were carried out, including daily morning and afternoon offerings and special offerings on Sabbath and Jewish holidaysLevites recited Psalms at appropriate moments during the offerings, including the Psalm of the Day, special psalms for the new month, and other occasions, the Hallel during major Jewish holidays, and psalms for special sacrifices such as the “Psalm for the Thanksgiving Offering” (Psalm 100).

As part of the daily offering, a prayer service was performed in the Temple which was used as the basis of the traditional Jewish (morning) service recited to this day, including well-known prayers such as the Shema, and the Priestly Blessing. The Mishna describes it as follows:

The superintendent said to them, bless one benediction! and they blessed, and read the Ten Commandments, and the Shema, “And it shall come to pass if you will hearken”, and “And [God] spoke…”. They pronounced three benedictions with the people present: “True and firm”, and the “Avodah” “Accept, Lord our God, the service of your people Israel, and the fire-offerings of Israel and their prayer receive with favor. Blessed is He who receives the service of His people Israel with favor” (similar to what is today the 17th blessing of the Amidah), and the Priestly Blessing, and on the Sabbath they recited one blessing; “May He who causes His name to dwell in this House, cause to dwell among you love and brotherliness, peace and friendship” on behalf of the weekly Priestly Guard that departed.

— Mishna Tamid 5:1

In the Talmud[edit]

The Talmud (Yoma 9b) provides traditional theological reasons for the destruction: “Why was the first Temple destroyed? Because the three cardinal sins were rampant in society: idol worship, licentiousness, and murder… And why then was the second Temple – wherein the society was involved in Torah, commandments, and acts of kindness – destroyed? Because gratuitous hatred was rampant in society. This teaches you that gratuitous hatred is equal in severity to the three cardinal sins: idol worship, licentiousness, and murder.”[23][24]

Role in contemporary Jewish services[edit]

Part of the traditional Jewish morning service, the part surrounding the Shema prayer, is essentially unchanged from the daily worship service performed in the Temple. In addition, the Amidah prayer traditionally replaces the Temple’s daily Tamid and special-occasion Mussaf (additional) offerings (there are separate versions for the different types of sacrifices). They are recited during the times their corresponding offerings were performed in the Temple.

The Temple is mentioned extensively in Orthodox servicesConservative Judaism retains mentions of the Temple and its restoration but removes references to the sacrifices. References to sacrifices on holidays are made in the past tense, and petitions for their restoration are removed. Mentions in Orthodox Jewish services include:

  • A daily recital of Biblical and Talmudic passages related to the korbanot (sacrifices) performed in the Temple (See korbanot in siddur).
  • References to the restoration of the Temple and sacrificial worships in the daily Amidah prayer, the central prayer in Judaism.
  • A traditional personal plea for the restoration of the Temple at the end of the private recitation of the Amidah.
  • A prayer for the restoration of the “house of our lives” and the shekhinah (divine presence) “to dwell among us” is recited during the Amidah prayer.
  • Recitation of the Psalm of the day; the psalm sung by the Levites in the Temple for that day during the daily morning service.
  • Numerous psalms sung as part of the ordinary service make extensive references to the Temple and Temple worship.
  • Recitation of the special Jewish holiday prayers for the restoration of the Temple and their offering, during the Mussaf services on Jewish holidays.
  • An extensive recitation of the special Temple service for Yom Kippur during the service for that holiday.
  • Special services for Sukkot (Hakafot) contain extensive (but generally obscure) references to the special Temple service performed on that day.

The destruction of the Temple is mourned on the Jewish fast day of Tisha B’Av. Three other minor fasts (Tenth of Tevet, 17th of Tammuz, and Third of Tishrei), also mourn events leading to or following the destruction of the Temple. There are also mourning practices which are observed at all times, for example, the requirement to leave part of the house unplastered.

The Hebrew language

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF WIKIPEDIA)

 

Hebrew language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hebrew
עבריתIvrit
Temple Scroll.png

Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran
Pronunciation [(ʔ)ivˈʁit] – [(ʔ)ivˈɾit][note 1]
Native to Israel
Region Land of Israel
Ethnicity IsraelitesJews and Samaritans
Extinct Ancient Hebrew extinct by 586 CE, surviving as a liturgical language for Judaism[1][2][3]
Revival 9.0 million speakers of Modern Hebrew of which 5 million are native speakers in Israel. (2016)[4]
Early forms
Standard forms
Hebrew alphabet
Paleo-Hebrew alphabet(Archaic Biblical Hebrew)
Imperial Aramaic script (Late Biblical Hebrew)
Signed Hebrew (oral Hebrew accompanied by sign)[5]
Official status
Official language in
 Israel (as Modern Hebrew)
Regulated by Academy of the Hebrew Language
האקדמיה ללשון העברית(HaAkademia LaLashon HaʿIvrit)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 he
ISO 639-2 heb
ISO 639-3 Variously:
heb – Modern Hebrew
hbo – Classical Hebrew(liturgical)
smp – Samaritan Hebrew(liturgical)
obm – Moabite (extinct)
xdm – Edomite (extinct)
Glottolog hebr1246[6]
Linguasphere 12-AAB-a
Idioma hebreo.PNG

The Hebrew-speaking world:

  regions where Hebrew is the language of the majority
  regions where Hebrew is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA.

Hebrew (/ˈhbr/עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] (About this sound listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] (About this sound listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[7][4]Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 2]The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[9] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.[10][11]

Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt.[1][12][note 3]Aramaic and to a lesser extent, Greek was already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants.[14] It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgyrabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the lingua franca of Palestine’s Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel. According to Ethnologue, in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide.[3] After Israel, the United States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers,[15] mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel (the other being Modern Standard Arabic), while pre-modern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in Christian seminaries.

The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon Hakodesh (לשון הקדש), “the Holy Language”, since ancient times.