(Philosophy/Poem) Dirty Little Secrets

Dirty Little Secrets

 

Just because we were both young

I kept all of your nasty little secrets

Because both our kids were innocent

I pray their minds are clear of deceptions

 

Secrets, O how much they can harm

Dirty little secrets destroy all they touch

How many deaths have your dark daggers caused

Dirty little secrets, O how you mar the soul and heart

 

Secrets, prognosticate the lies that now come

Why always the need to bury a shameful truth

To skirt all real issues with your high skirts

In the mirror, what is that looking back at you

Can you even see the damage, dirty little secrets

 

We keep some secrets, sometimes we don’t

Sometimes to protect the heart of a friend

It’s okay to lie, just pretend we didn’t know

Dirty little secrets sometimes we keep for life

 

I wish that perfect that I myself could be

A disgrace is all I see the secrets inside of me

Lord I come to you bowed head on bent knees

Please cleanse me of all, my dirty little secrets

Myanmar Government Vows to Address Refugee Crisis in Rakhine State

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF GLOBAL VOICES)

 

Myanmar Government Vows to Address Refugee Crisis in Rakhine State, but Avoids Saying ‘Rohingya’

A Rohingya camp for internally displaced persons in Rakhine State. Photo by Mathias Eick. Source: Flickr page of EU/ECHO (CC BY-ND 2.0)

On September 19, 2017, Myanmar’s State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi delivered a widely anticipated speech in front of diplomats, United Nations officials, and members of the media to speak about what the government is doing to address the refugee crisis in Rakhine State.

Since August, about 400,000 Rohingyas have escaped to Bangladesh after the Myanmar government intensified its crackdown of insurgents belonging to the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), which attacked several police and military outposts.

The crackdown involved clearing operations that displaced thousands of Rohingya families. Both the ARSA and government troops accused each other of committing widespread abuses such as looting and burning of houses, beating and killing of women and children, and instigating religious violence. The conflict has affected various ethnic groups in the Rakhine state.

The Rohingya people are an ethnic group in western Myanmar, but the government considers them to be illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and denies them citizenship. Most are Muslim, and living in a country with a Buddhist majority population, they suffer from discrimination. Many are deprived of basic social services.

In her speech, Suu Kyi assured Myanmar’s ethnic groups that the government is thinking about their welfare. Unfortunately, she failed to mention the Rohingya, a move in line with the government’s refusal to recognize the Rohingya as an official ethnic group. In fact, her whole speech avoided reference to “Rohingya” and instead she referred to them simply as Muslims:

We feel deeply for the suffering of all the people who have been caught up in the conflict. Those who have had to flee their homes are many – not just Muslims and Rakhines, but also small minority groups, such as the Daing-net, Mro, Thet, Mramagyi and Hindus of whose presence most of the world is totally unaware.

She also said refugees who fled to Bangladesh can return to Myanmar — but only after undergoing a verification process:

Those who have been verified as refugees from this country will be accepted without any problems and with full assurance of their security and their access to humanitarian aid.

With regard to the recent spate of attacks in Rakhine, she spoke about punishing groups responsible for spreading violence:

Action will be taken against all peoples, regardless of their religion, race, or political position who go against the laws of the land and who violate human rights as accepted by our international community. We have never been soft on human rights in this country.

Suu Kyi, who won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 for her promotion of democracy, has been criticized for her silence regarding the issue and her alleged inaction to prevent the persecution of Rohingya. Her September 19 speech was regarded as a crucial moment for her to clarify once and for all the government’s position on the matter, in particular the forced exodus of thousands of Rohingya to nearby Bangladesh. Suu Kyi is not the head of government but she is the leader of the ruling party.

In her speech, Suu Kyi emphasized that Myanmar has a fragile democracy that is undergoing transition after five decades of experiencing direct military rule. She added that the new government has been in power for only 18 months and it has been struggling very hard to enforce reforms while keeping peace and restoring democratic processes.

‘The harshest international critics of the government will be far from satisfied’

Meanwhile, Vice President U Henry Van Thio addressed the United Nations General Assembly on September 20 and echoed Suu Kyi’s point that the majority of Muslims in Rakhine have decided to remain in the country:

We would need to find out the reason for this exodus. What is little known is that the great majority of the Muslim population decided to remain in their villages. We share the need to ensure that vital humanitarian assistance is provided to all those in need.

Suu Kyi’s speech was beamed live across Myanmar and groups of people even watched it in the capital while holding placards with the words, “We stand with Aung San Suu Kyi.”

Historian Thant Myint-U thinks the speech will resonate with the domestic population, but international critics will not be satisfied:

My guess is that the harshest international critics of the government will be far from satisfied; but that the vast majority of Burmese people and at least some foreign governments will feel she’s steering the only realistic course she can under very complex circumstances.

Indeed, local media highlighted how global news reports about the refugee crisis focused on the Rohingya but neglected the situation of other ethnic groups. Some even complained that rich countries are unduly interfering in Myanmar’s domestic affairs.

‘Little more than a mix of untruths and victim blaming’

Netherlands Ambassador to Myanmar Wouter Jurgens tweeted his disappointment with Suu Kyi’s speech (ASSK stands for Aung San Suu Kyi):

ASSK’s speech on Rakhine: we feared denial and hoped for a message of compassion and justice: neither has come true.  @DutchMFA

James Gomez of Amnesty International wondered about Suu Kyi’s “silence about the role of the security forces” in the attacks against the Rohingya:

Aung San Suu Kyi today demonstrated that she and her government are still burying their heads in the sand over the horrors unfolding in Rakhine State. At times, her speech amounted to little more than a mix of untruths and victim blaming.

Writing for news website Coconuts Yangon, Jacob Goldberg witnessed how an enthusiastic crowd welcomed the speech of Suu Kyi.

Generalizing a problem in order to ignore a specific emergency works like a charm for people in power when their followers are on board.

Watching the crowd outside City Hall throw a mini-rave before and after they heard Aung San Suu Kyi trivialize the pain of the world’s most persecuted people made it clearer than ever that the struggle for real justice inside Myanmar will be long and torturous. But it will only begin once at least one person in the crowd suggests that death and displacement are no occasion for a dance party.

After weeks of being quiet about the issue, Suu Kyi broke her silence but failed to appease everyone, especially human rights groups. Worse, by avoiding to mention the Rohingya, Suu Kyi’s speech could in fact reinforce negative views about the ethnic group. Meanwhile, as Myanmar rebuilds the shattered villages in Rakhine, the situation of Rohingya refugees staying in makeshift camps in both Bangladesh and Myanmar continues to deteriorate.

Puerto Rico, Trapped Between Colonialism and Hurricanes

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF GLOBAL VOICES)

 

Puerto Rico, Trapped Between Colonialism and Hurricanes

Puerto Rican Graffiti. Photo by Flickr user Juan Cristóbal Zulueta. Used under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) license.

Puerto Rican Graffiti. Photo by Flickr user Juan Cristóbal Zulueta. Used under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) license.

You came to Puerto Rico for the golden sand and sun—gold, you will recall, was also the basis of our first colonizers’ initial attraction. For the endless piña coladas and rum-spiked mysteries. For the colonial charm and quaint, humble lifestyle. Poverty looks so alluring in the Caribbean, what with the bright colors, crystal-clear waters and the backdrop of lush greens—besides, it’s only for a week. Your friends say it’s the hottest Spring Break spot; the newspapers say it’s a debt-ridden disaster; your parents say it’s dangerous and that the water is undrinkable; and the brochures say it’s a (tax) haven, an absolute paradise. So here you are, in your bathing suit and sarong, mojito in hand, ready to focus on your one task for the week: getting a tan.

But it turns out that the sun isn’t nailed onto the sky, and it doesn’t run on one-million 100-watt light bulbs that never fail. The tides rise and the swells are ferocious. Coconuts, palm trees and branches are potential projectiles. And a hurricane is heading straight for your worry-free fantasy.

So you try to catch a flight out of this paradise-turned-inferno, because a hurricane was not on your must-see itinerary. Instead, JetBlue takes you to a hurricane shelter in San Juan, a hot and humid coliseum, where your beach chair is replaced by a cot; your piña colada by a Walgreens water bottle; your dream, by our reality.

The power was out in my house as I imagined the scenario above, which had taken place the day before, right before Irma’s arrival. After Irma’s passing the next morning there were more than a million households without power. The Electric Power Authority (AEE) was predicting the outages would last two to four months, and almost 80,000 households had lost water service as well. Over 6,200 people were in shelters on the northeastern side of the island, and Puerto Rico’s agricultural industry had suffered $30.4 million in losses. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and Governor Ricardo Rosselló were still evaluating infrastructural and residential damages. And now a powerful new storm was heading our way: María.

Puerto Rico is no stranger to crisis. Before Irma’s rampage through the archipelago, Puerto Rico was already in the midst of one of the most devastating financial and socio-political crises in its recent history, with an unaudited $74 billion debt under its belt, $49 billion in pension obligations, and several decades’ worth of illegal bond issuances and trading related to its status as an overly-advertised tax haven. Neoliberal policies such as draconian budget cuts and extreme austerity measures had already rendered life in Puerto Rico quite precarious. And the whole thing was being overseen and managed simultaneously by Governor Rosselló, an unelected and antidemocratic Fiscal Control Board, and judge Laura Taylor Swain, all of whom were going back and forth on the country’s fiscal management and debt restructuring processes.

But even as Hurricane Irma headed straight towards it, for many outside of the country, Puerto Rico is a mere blip on CNN’s news ticker, an enchanting US-owned island on a tourist brochure, that exotic place where the music video for “Despacito” was filmed (and made all the better by Justin Bieber), a pebble sinking between an ocean and a sea that have seen too much.

But Irma’s passing and aftermath have once again brought to light Puerto Rico’s primordial conundrum: colonialism.

Puerto Rico has been a US colony (the US prefers the euphemistic designations of “commonwealth”, “unincorporated territory” and “free associated state”) for 199 years, a relationship that has led to the country’s being trapped in a steep downward spiral. The current fiscal and socio-political crisis is only one of the side effects of this relationship.

Hurricane Irma’s passing underscored the damage done by the neoliberal austerity measures imposed by the Fiscal Control Board and the crimes committed by corporations taking advantage of Puerto Rico’s colonial status. For starters, as a result of the massive closure of public schools, only 329 schools across the island were available as hurricane shelters compared with the 372 available during Hurricane Bertha’s passing in 2014.

Puerto Rico’s infrastructure also finds itself in an advanced state of deterioration, including roads, bridges, the University of Puerto Rico and public service buildings all of whom were critically endangered during Irma’s passing. A good part of the country’s “essential infrastructure” is on the coast, making it vulnerable to flooding, high tides and storm surges, especially during hurricanes of Irma’s or Maria’s intensity.

It is notable that much of that infrastructure was built to benefit the tourist industry and mercantile trade with the US, and the US alone. Money invested in infrastructure tends to go towards revitalizing these “essentials”, not to repairing the potholed roads in our communities, remediating asbestos-filled buildings or replacing crumbling light poles at the mercy of hurricane winds. All of this is further proof of our colonial market dependency and the essentially colonial nature of the tourist industry, which caters particularly to PR’s relationship with the US.

Even the disaster declaration signed by the US President authorizing FEMA assistance for Puerto Rico second-rate, allowing only for search and rescue, public health and safety, and debris removal. It didn’t include rebuilding or even restoration of power, and with the current fiscal crisis and the Fiscal Control Board’s silence since Irma’s passing, rebuilding and restructuring will be a tough feat for Puerto Rico given the lack of available resources.

Center for Investigative Journalism in Puerto Rico’s Carla Minet said:

The budget cuts, in an already weak economy, will probably make the storm’s social impact worse.

Minet added that a pre-Irma forecast by the Center for a New Economy’s policy director, Sergio M. Marxuach, predicts that the recently approved the Fiscal Plan would result in another lost decade, continued population loss due to migration and lower birth rates, lower employment, less access to public education, pension cuts, worsening health outcomes, higher mortality and lower life expectancy, and, ultimately, higher rates of poverty and inequality. “Now add in the cataclysm of a monster hurricane that the plan never accounted for,” said Minet.

The Fiscal Control Board is likely to use Irma as an excuse to aggressively push the many policies it has in line, such as the privatization of PR’s Electric Power Authority (AEE). Nor would it be surprising if Gov. Rosselló and the Fiscal Control Board used the occasion to dismantle and privatize the University of Puerto Rico, the only public higher education institution in the country, as well as a number of other public institutions that are defenseless against the colonial rule of the Fiscal Control Board and its blatant neoliberal attacks.

Now, barely two weeks after Irma’s passing, we’ve just been hit by another category 5 hurricane, María. This just as some household have just got back their electricity supply, and while others are still living in the dark; while the ground is still strewn with fallen trees and light posts waiting to take on second lives as projectiles; while many, both locals and refugees from neighboring Caribbean islands, are still recovering from the loss of their homes, their entire reality; and while crisis and colonialism continue to hold hands, as they do every day.

And so, you’re sitting in your cot with your straw hat on, hundreds of locals scrambling around you with what’s left of their lives stuffed into a bag or a suitcase, wondering why JetBlue dropped you off here and high-tailed it; why the shelter is so understaffed; why the power went even though it hasn’t yet started raining and not a gusts of wind has blown; why CNN wasn’t covering Irma’s passing over Puerto Rico. “I’m here, send over an Embassy representative for me!” you yell in your mind as you stare at the screen of your almost-dead smartphone. Why, you wonder, has life had been so unfair to you, ruining your longed-for vacation in the Island of enchantment.

Then your thoughts are interrupted as you spot a window and you walk gloomily towards it and look through pigeon-christened glass, and watch as the storm clouds gather and gusts of wind batter a US flag—oh, and a Puerto Rican one too.

Evrensel bir esas: masumiyet

Theology, philosophy, gets one to think

wonderfulhuman

Hukuk, teoloji ve ahlâkî kurallar…O kadar enteresan şekilde karşılaşıp kesişiyorlar ki…

Son günlerde en çarpıcı gelen özelliği yazayım:

Evrensel hukuk: masumiyet karinesi

Yani kişinin öncelikle masum olduğunun esas olduğu, delil olmadıkça suçlanamayacaği ve suçsuz sayılacağı esası.

Aslında bu esas gündelik hayatta insanlar arasında işlese bir çok psikolojik problemin önü alınır.

İşte teolojik olarak sui zan /insanlar hakkında kötü düsünme denen vartaya; psikolojik olarak paranoya denen patolojiye; bence bu temel esası öğrenen Medeni insanlar kolay kolay düşmeyeceklerdir.evrensel hukuk/masumiyet karinesi temelinde, düşüncelerinden ötürü kendilerini/ apaçık bir şekilde/ ‘delilim var mı?’Diye hesaba çekebilme farkindaligina ulaşacaklardir.Böylece öncelikle kendi psikolojilerini koruma altına alacaklardır.

Evet; artık modern insan evrensel disiplinleri sadece hukuk kitaplarına hapsetmemeli; kitaplardaki dinamiği kendi gündelik yaşantısına almalı ve ruh hâlindeki değişim ve dönüşümlerde bilimsel bir parametre olarak uygulamalıdır.

Kısacık bir ömürde düzgün bir psikoloji başlı başına bir konfordur.ki geçmişte bunuafiyet.. diye tanımlamışlar.

İnsanlar hakkında kötü düşünmeyelim.

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If You Believe In The God Of The Bible Then You Believe In E.T. Or: Do You Think God Is An Idiot!

 

If you are a person that believes that there is ‘a God’ who created everything then it is my belief that either you believe there is life on other planets, or you must think that God is an idiot. Personally I do believe in the God of the Bible and not for one second do I believe that He is an idiot, I believe that He is the furthermost possible from being an idiot. For one thing, an idiot could not have created even this planet and the life on it and that is even without considering that God made many billions of planets. I know that many folks who do believe in the Bible as the ‘Word Of God’ are quite oblivious to major issues within it but those subject matters are for another time, another article.

 

I personally to the best of my knowledge have never seen an Alien nor have I to the best of my knowledge seen a non-human made spacecraft. I do know a person whom I totally trust who says that when she was about 10 years old her whole family absolutely witnessed one that was way to close for her comfort. This lady is not a liar, when she tells me something she has no reason to lie. I know that in my adult lifetime during my 30+ years driving the roads of North America that I have seen lights in the night sky several times that I could not explain so I will not try too here.

 

I know that Scripture says several times that the Earth will be ‘God’s footstool’ and I do not doubt the Word of God. The simple Biblical truth is that once God puts an end to our current world and He remakes it and He has brought the ‘New Jerusalem’ down from Heaven in the location of the current Jerusalem that He will rule the new world from there. The Bible is quite plain that ‘The Christ’ will put His Throne upon the Temple Mount and then He will physically rule from there. In other words, He will be resting His feet upon this planet. What does a person do with a footstool? They rest their feet upon it!

 

You see, I am not saying that human beings are also on other planets, I doubt that there are, yet to believe that God created many billions of other planets and solar systems for no purpose or reason at all is ludicrous. Even Heaven itself would qualify as ‘other worldly’ as it is a place where non-human Beings live. Humans can not see the Spiritual world or a Spiritual Being unless they want us to. There are several Biblical examples of this, do you by chance remember the donkey that an Angel opened its eyes, then its mouth? Why would the most intelligent Being that has ever existed create billions of planets and then put nothing on any of them? Is it simply that there are beings on other planets but we just can’t see them? Are there Beings on other planets that live under the surface of their planets? I am not going to tell you that I know these answers as that would simply be a lie on my part and I refuse to do that. I know that I am not the smartest person in the world, not even the smartest guy. I think that the smartest two people in the world are suppose to be Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, aren’t they? Yet all jokes aside, do you really think that a Supreme Being made all of these planets for no purpose at all? Do you believe that God is an Idiot? I don’t!

North Korea’s Foreign Minister Has Said That President Trump Has Declared War On His Country

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF CNN)

 

Washington (CNN)North Korea’s Foreign Minister Ri Yong Ho on Monday accused US President Donald Trump of declaring war on his country by tweeting over the weekend that North Korea “won’t be around much longer.”

“Last weekend Trump claimed that our leadership wouldn’t be around much longer and declared a war on our country,” Ri said, according to an official translation of his remarks to reporters in New York.
“Since the United States declared war on our country, we will have every right to make all self-defensive counter measures, including the right to shoot down the United States strategic bombers at any time even when they are not yet inside the aerospace border of our country,” Ri said.
A White House spokesman said Monday the Trump administration had no reaction to the comments.
The ongoing war of words between the two nations saw several new fiery salvos on Saturday, a day on which the US military, in a show of force, flew bombers in international airspace over waters east of North Korea.
Speaking at the UN on Saturday, Ri said that Trump had made a missile attack on the US mainland inevitable by insulting the dignity of North Korea.
“None other than Trump himself is on a suicide mission,” Ri said in a speech at the UN General Assembly. “In case innocent lives of the US are harmed because of this suicide attack, Trump will be held totally responsible.”
Trump took on Twitter Saturday night to respond to Ri’s remarks.
“Just heard Foreign Minister of North Korea speak at UN If he echoes thoughts of Little Rocket Man, they won’t be around much longer!” Trump wrote.

The Dirty Laundry………..

Boundless Blessings by Kamal

drying laundry on line.JPG

A young couple moved into a new neighborhood in Wales.  The next morning, while they are eating breakfast, the young woman watches her neighbor hang the washed laundry outside. Immediately she points to her husband: ‘Look, darling that laundry is not very clean, there are so many stains on the clothes. That lady does not know how to wash correctly.  Perhaps she needs better laundry soap.’  Her husband looked on, but remained silent and did not answer his wife.

Every time her neighbor would hang her washed clothes to dry, the young woman would make the same comments and wonder what is wrong with that lady. Why is she doing that. Very often she asked her husband, ‘Darling do you think I need to go and give her a new detergent power or tell her and give her some advice.’ Her husband would kindly say, ‘No you do not worry.  It is completely…

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Do Not Quit, Keep Playing…………

Boundless Blessings by Kamal

concert

A beautiful story that I read, is so perfect with the Title: ‘Do not Quit, Keep Playing’ and once we surrender ourselves in the Master’s Hand at every moment, our life’s work truly can be beautiful and a masterpiece. You can hear the voice of the Master, whispering in your ear, ‘Don’t quit, keep playing’. The story goes like this: 

‘Wishing to encourage her young son’s progress on the piano, a mother took her small boy to a Paderewski concert. After they were comfortably seated in the front row, the mother spotted a friend in the audience. She told her son, ‘Sit here only, do not go anywhere. I will just say hello to my friend and come back.’ She walked down the aisle to greet her friend.  Seizing the opportunity to explore the wonders of the concert hall, the little boy got up from his seat and…

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Archaeologists Have Figured Out How The Great Giza Pyramid Was Built

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF ENGLAND’S CHANNEL 9 NEWS AND UK CHANNEL 4)

 

 

Ancient Egyptians reportedly built the Great Pyramid at Giza by shifting more than 154 million kilograms of limestone in boats.

Archaeologists working with a documentary to be screened on UK’s Channel 4 claims to have unearthed an ancient scroll, a network of waterways and a ceremonial boat, The Sun reports.

The papyrus scroll is believed to date back to 2600BC and is said to be the only firsthand account of how the Great Pyramid was constructed.

The evidence claims to prove thousands of workers helped move 154,221,406kgs of limestone along the River Nile in boats made with planks and rope.

The Sun reports the limestone blocks were transported through the waterways before arriving at a purposely built inland port.

“We’ve outlined the central basin, which we think was the primary delivery area to the foot of the Giza Plateau,” archaeologist Mark Lehner said.

The Great Pyramid, which was the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu, was built in 2600BC.

RELATED ARTICLES

Little is known about Khufu other than that he ruled during the Forth Dynasty in the first half of the Old Kingdom after succeeding his father.

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Over 34,000 people flee in fear of Bali volcano erupting at any time

(THIS ARTICLE IS COURTESY OF THE SHANGHAI DAILY NEWS ALSO KNOWN AS ‘SHINE’)

 

Over 34,000 people flee in fear of Bali volcano erupting at any time

MORE than 34,000 people have fled from a rumbling volcano on the resort island of Bali as the magnitude of tremors grows, prompting fears it could erupt for the first time in more than 50 years.

Indonesia’s disaster mitigation agency said the number of people fleeing their homes surrounding the volcano had tripled since Friday amid growing alarm that Mount Agung could erupt at any moment.

“The evacuation process is ongoing and we expect the number of evacuees to continue to rise,” agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said.

The volcano, the highest point in Bali and located about 75 kilometers from the tourist hub of Kuta, has been rumbling since August.

Officials announced the highest possible alert level on Friday following the increasing volcanic activity, and urged people to stay at least 9 kilometers away from the crater.

“I am actually very worried to leave, I left my cows and pigs at home because we were ordered to vacate our village immediately,” villager Nyoman Asih who fled with her entire family said.

The international airport in Bali’s capital, Denpasar, was anticipating the prospect of closure but no flight schedules had been affected as yesterday. The airport has prepared buses and trains to divert passengers to alternative hubs in neighboring provinces if the mountain erupts.

Flight disruptions due to drifting ash clouds are not uncommon in Indonesia, which sits on a belt of seismic activity known as the “Ring of Fire.”

Last year more than two dozen domestic and international flights to Bali’s neighboring resort island Lombok were cancelled due to a drifting ash cloud from erupting Mount Rinjani.

Island still safe

Bali officials said the island was still generally safe but urged tourists to stay away from tourism spots located within the danger zone.

Pura Besakih temple, one of Bali’s most prominent temples which is located just a few kilometers away from the mountain’s slopes, has been closed to visitors since Saturday.

The Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation said the tremors had grown more powerful yesterday.

“The mountain has not erupted until now. The earthquakes are happening less frequently but the magnitude is getting stronger,” Gede Suantika, a senior volcanologist at the agency, said.

Indonesia is home to around 130 volcanoes due to its position on the “Ring of Fire,” a belt of tectonic plate boundaries circling the Pacific Ocean where frequent seismic activity occurs.

The volcano agency’s chief Kasbani said Mount Agung had a history of major eruptions that eclipsed recent episodes in Indonesia, including the 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi in Central Java that claimed at least 350 lives.

The 2010 Merapi eruption, which also forced hundreds of thousands of villagers to flee, was that mountain’s biggest since 1872.

The 1963 eruption of Mount Agung killed more than 1,000 people and devastated many villages.